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Catherine Birken

TitleStaff Paediatrician
InstitutionThe Hospital for Sick Children
DepartmentPaediatric Medicine Division
Address555 University Avenue
Toronto ON M5G 1X8
Phone416-813-1500
vCardDownload vCard

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    University of Toronto, Toronto, OntarioMD1997Medicine
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario2001Chief Resident - Paediatrics
    Department of Health Policy, Management & Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, OntarioMSc2004Clinical Epidemiology and Health Care Research
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario2004Academic General Paediatrics Fellowship
    Collapse awards and honors
    2004The Children's Hospital Foundation Award for Excellence in Research, Children's Hospital Foundation of Manitoba
    2011Dr. William Feldman Award for Excellence in Paediatric Medicine Research, The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Paediatric Medicine
    2012Special Achievement Award, American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP Ontario Chapter)
    2014Award for Outstanding Clinical Contribution (with Jill Hamilton/STOMP), The Hospital for Sick Children

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Catherine Birken MD, MSc, is a general paediatrician in the division of Paediatric Medicine, Associate Professor, University of Toronto (U of T), and a Scientist, Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute. Her clinical care activities include attending paediatrician in inpatient paediatrics, and paediatrician in the outpatient SickKids Obesity Management Program for children with complex obesity. Her research is in prevention of childhood overweight and obesity in early childhood, and is co-leader of TARGet Kids! primary care practice based research network to advance child health research. Dr. Birken is funded by CIHR for the study of obesity and cardiometabolic risk and early childhood development in school, 2 randomized controlled trials in obesity prevention and treatment with public health nurse led parenting and home visiting intervention, and a population evaluation of the Healthy Kids Community Challenge in Ontario.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
         (Maguire JL)
    CIHR
    TARGet Kids!: Optimizing human potential
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Birken CS)
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto
    Is prolonged bottle feeding an independent risk factor for overweight in young children?
    Role: Principal Investigator

         (Korczak D, Birken CS)
    Sickkids Centre for Healthy Active Kids Catalyst Award
    The early association of cardiometabolic and depression risk: pilot study of a developmental model
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

         (Parkin P, Maguire J)
    Lung Association/Ontario Thoracic Society
    Asthma, vitamin D levels and health care utilization in young children
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Ball GD, Birken CS, Hamilton JK, Holt NL, Masse LC, Morrison KM)
    CIHR
    Team to address bariatric case in Canadian children (Team ABC3)
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

         (Maguire JL)
    CIHR
    HOLD IT: Health outcomes of low vitamin D in toddlers: A TARGet Kids! longitudinal cohort study
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Hanley A)
    CIHR
    Understanding the effects of social, behavioural and metabolic factors on early childhood growth trajectories among Aboriginal Canadians
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Birken CS)
    Physicians' Services Incorporated Foundation
    PROMOTE: Preschoolers at risk - obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors: towards early identification
    Role: Principal Investigator

         (Parkin PC)

    OptEC: Optimizing Early Child Development in the primary care physician practice setting: pragmatic RCT of iron treatment for young children with non-anemic iron deficiency
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Maguire JL)
    CIHR
    Capacity building in innovative clinical trials to optimize children’s physical, mental and educational wellbeing
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Anderson LN)
    CIHR
    Impact of the Healthy Kids Community Challenge (HKCC) population health intervention on sugar intake and child health
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Maguire JL)
    Dairy Farmers of Canada
    Low milk intake, vitamin D deficiency and fracture risk in young children
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Birken CS, Ball GD)
    Public Health Agency of Canada
    Canadian Pediatric Society Surveillance Program: Severe obesity and global developmental delay in preschool children
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

         (Copes R)
    Public Health Ontario
    Blood lead, mercury and cadmium levels in children under the age of 6 in the Greater Toronto Area: collaboration between TARGet Kids! and Toronto Public Health and Public Health Ontario
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Comelli EM, Bandsma RH)
    Microbiome and Nutrition Collaborative Grant
    Microbiome patterns associated with specific growth trajectories in school age children: interactive effects of diet and social determinants of health
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Parkin PC)
    Ontario Child Health Support Unit Demonstration Projects
    Optimizing growth and developmental trajectories in early childhood through a primary care practice based research network – TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids)
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Dennis DL, Birken CS, June P)
    CIHR
    TRajectories Of healthy life using Public Health and primary care Interventions in Canada: The TROPHIC Trial
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

         (McCrindle B (nominated)
    CIHR
    CIHR team in childhood obesity research
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Wong P)
    Physicians Services Inc Foundation (PSI)
    The association between total breastfeeding duration and household food insecurity
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Parkin PC)
    Physicians' Services Incorporated Foundation
    OptEC: Optimizing Early Child Development in the primary care physician practice setting: pragmatic randomized trial of iron treatment for young children with non-anemic iron deficiency
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Persaud N, Azarpazhooh A, Laupacis A)
    CIHR
    Does regular xylitol use reduce the number of acute otitis media episodes in young children? A pragmatic RCT
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Maguire JL)
    Thrasher Research Fund
    DO IT! Trial Extension: Vitamin D outcomes and interventions in toddlers: A TARGet Kids! randomized controlled trial
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Sharp J)
    Academic Pediatric Association Resident Investigator Award (RIA) Program
    The influence of temperament on outdoor play in early childhood
    Role: Senior Responsible Investigator

         (Birken CS)
    Paediatric Consultants, The Hospital for Sick Children
    Modifiable risk factors for acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell disease admitted to hospital with a painful crisis
    Role: Principal Investigator

         (Anderson LN, Birken CS)
    Population Health Intervention Research to Promote Health and Health Equity Program
    Evaluation of the Healthy Kids Community Challenge in early childhood
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

         (Beck C)
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto
    Treatment choices for children with typical acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura: development of a decision aid
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Maguire JL)
    CIHR
    DOIT Trial: Vitamin D outcomes and interventions in toddlers
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Birken CS, Janus M)
    CIHR
    Fit for school, fit for life: Child health and school readiness
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

         (Dennis CL)
    CIHR
    Evaluating collaborative are for postpartum depression in pediatric primary care settings (EPDS Trial)
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Hamilton J)
    Provincial Council for Maternal & Child Health (PCMCH)
    Evaluation of the SickKids Team Obesity Management Program (STOMP)
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Birken CS)
    Paediatric Consultants, The Hospital for Sick Children
    An office based intervention to improve media use in preschool children: a randomized controlled trial
    Role: Principal Investigator

         (Nicholson J)
    CIHR
    Tipping the scales: Weighing the health impacts of obesity in Canadian kids
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Birken CS)
    Ontario Child Health Support Unit (OCHSU) IMPACT Child Health Award
    Addressing obesity in toddlers at risk: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing usual care to group-based parenting and home visits in primary care
    Role: Principal Investigator

         (Anand S)
    CIHR
    CIHR DOHaD Registry Project - Research advancement through cohort cataloguing and harmonization (ReACH)
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Snowdon AW, Howard AW)
    CIHR
    CIHR Team in traffic and road injury prevention program for Canadian children
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Birken CS)
    CIHR
    PROMOTE: Preschoolers at risk - obesity trajectories & cardiometabolic factors: towards early identification
    Role: Principal Investigator

         (Maguire JL)
    CIHR
    DO IT Trial: vitamin D outcomes and interventions in toddlers
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Li P, Constantin E)
    The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre and Montreal Children’s Hospital Foundation
    The impact of high free sugar intake on the gut microbiome, obesity, and cardiometabolic risks: a novel study in preschool-aged children
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Maguire JL)
    St. Michael's Hospital Foundation
    The TARGet Kids! research study
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Wong P)
    Paediatric Consultants Partnerships for Creative Professional Activity, Hospital for Sick Children
    Ultrasound evaluation of a carotid intimal thickness in early childhood: a pilot study
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Charach A)
    Psychiatry Endowment Fund Seed Grant Competition
    Detecting mental health problems in preschool children
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Tremblay MS, Carson V, Duggan M)
    CIHR
    Update of the Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Korczak D)
    Ontario Mental Health Foundation
    The use of food to soothe: The role of maternal depression in infant feeding practice and cardiometabolic risk
    Role: Co-Investigator

         (Strauss S, Wilhelm L)
    Ontario SPOR SUPPORT Unit
    Partners in Research: A patient oriented research capacity building initiative for patients and researchers
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Oatley H, Borkhoff CM, Chen S, Macarthur C, Persaud N, Birken CS, Maguire JL, Parkin PC. Screening for Iron Deficiency in Early Childhood Using Serum Ferritin in the Primary Care Setting. Pediatrics. 2018 Dec; 142(6). PMID: 30487142.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Kim THM, Tavares E, Birken CS. Engaging parents to research childhood interventions aimed at preventing common health problems. CMAJ. 2018 Nov 07; 190(Suppl):S22-S23. PMID: 30404844.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Hueniken K, Aglipay M, Birken CS, Parkin PC, Loeb MB, Thorpe KE, Dai DWH, Laupacis A, Mamdani M, Mazzulli T, Maguire JL. Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptom Severity in Healthy Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 Nov 05. PMID: 30399024.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Bayoumi I, Parkin PC, Lebovic G, Patel R, Link K, Birken CS, Maguire JL, Borkhoff CM. Iron deficiency among low income Canadian toddlers: a cross-sectional feasibility study in a Community Health Centre and non-Community Health Centre sites. BMC Fam Pract. 2018 Sep 24; 19(1):161. PMID: 30249193.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Kamel M, Smith BT, Wahi G, Carsley S, Birken CS, Anderson LN. Continuous cardiometabolic risk score definitions in early childhood: a scoping review. Obes Rev. 2018 Dec; 19(12):1688-1699. PMID: 30223304.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Persaud N, Laupacis A, Azarpazhooh A, Birken C, Hoch JS, Isaranuwatchai W, Maguire JL, Mamdani MM, Thorpe K, Allen C, Mason D, Kowal C, Bazeghi F, Parkin P. Xylitol for the prevention of acute otitis media episodes in children aged 2-4 years: protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 05; 8(8):e020941. PMID: 30082349.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Borkhoff CM, Dai DWH, Jairam JA, Wong PD, Cox KA, Maguire JL, Birken CS, Macarthur C, Parkin PC. Breastfeeding to 12 mo and beyond: nutrition outcomes at 3 to 5 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Aug 01; 108(2):354-362. PMID: 30101330.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Cohen-Silver J, Adams S, Agrawal R, Birken C, Cohen E, Dougherty G, Houtrow A, Jegathesan T, Kandasamy S, Muskat B, Pai N, Maguire JL. Development of the Pediatric Social Risk Instrument Using a Structured Panel Approach. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2018 Oct; 57(12):1414-1422. PMID: 30003793.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Selvanayagam T, Walker S, Gazzellone MJ, Kellam B, Cytrynbaum C, Stavropoulos DJ, Li P, Birken CS, Hamilton J, Weksberg R, Scherer SW. Genome-wide copy number variation analysis identifies novel candidate loci associated with pediatric obesity. Eur J Hum Genet. 2018 Nov; 26(11):1588-1596. PMID: 29976977.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Omand JA, To T, O'Connor DL, Parkin PC, Birken CS, Thorpe KE, Maguire JL. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and health service utilization for asthma in early childhood. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2018 Aug; 53(8):1018-1026. PMID: 29905403.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Satkunam M, Anderson LN, Carsley S, Maguire JL, Parkin PC, Sprague AE, Ball GDC, Birken CS. Severe obesity in children 17 to 24 months of age: a cross-sectional study of TARGet Kids! and Better Outcomes Registry & Network (BORN) Ontario. Can J Public Health. 2018 Aug; 109(4):489-497. PMID: 29981101.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Janus M, Brownell M, Reid-Westoby C, Bennett T, Birken C, Coplan R, Duku E, Ferro MA, Forer B, Georgiades S, Gorter JW, Guhn M, Maguire JL, Manson H, Pei J, Santos R. Establishing a protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early childhood development for children with health disorders: Canadian Children's Health in Context Study (CCHICS). BMJ Open. 2018 May 29; 8(5):e023688. PMID: 29844103.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Eny KM, Chen S, Anderson LN, Chen Y, Lebovic G, Pullenayegum E, Parkin PC, Maguire JL, Birken CS. Breastfeeding duration, maternal body mass index, and birth weight are associated with differences in body mass index growth trajectories in early childhood. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Apr 01; 107(4):584-592. PMID: 29635496.
      View in: PubMed
    14. van den Heuvel M, Birken C. Food insecurity and breastfeeding. CMAJ. 2018 Mar 19; 190(11):E310-E311. PMID: 29555860.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Carsley S, Birken CS, Parkin P, Pullenayegum E, Tu K. Completeness and accuracy of anthropometric measurements in electronic medical records for children attending primary care. J Innov Health Inform. 2018 Mar 09; 25(1):963. PMID: 29717951.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Manlhiot C, Mueller B, O'Shea S, Majeed H, Bernknopf B, Labelle M, Westcott KV, Bai H, Chahal N, Birken CS, Yeung RSM, McCrindle BW. Environmental epidemiology of Kawasaki disease: Linking disease etiology, pathogenesis and global distribution. PLoS One. 2018; 13(2):e0191087. PMID: 29415012.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Fuller A, Maguire JL, Carsley S, Chen Y, Lebovic G, Omand J, Parkin P, Birken CS. Difficulty buying food, BMI, and eating habits in young children. Can J Public Health. 2018 01 22; 108(5-6):e497-e502. PMID: 29356655.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Narang I, McCrindle BW, Manlhiot C, Lu Z, Al-Saleh S, Birken CS, Hamilton J. Intermittent nocturnal hypoxia and metabolic risk in obese adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Breath. 2018 Dec; 22(4):1037-1044. PMID: 29357088.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Wong PD, Anderson LN, Dai DDW, Parkin PC, Maguire JL, Birken CS. The Association of Breastfeeding Duration and Early Childhood Cardiometabolic Risk. J Pediatr. 2018 Jan; 192:80-85.e1. PMID: 29246362.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Albaum JM, Carsley S, Chen Y, Dai DWH, Lebovic G, McCrindle BW, Maguire JL, Parkin PC, Birken CS. Persistent High Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Early Childhood: A Latent Class Growth Model Analysis. J Pediatr. 2017 Dec; 191:152-157. PMID: 29173300.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Korczak DJ, Madigan S, Colasanto M, Szatmari P, Chen Y, Maguire J, Parkin P, Birken CS. The longitudinal association between temperament and physical activity in young children. Prev Med. 2018 Jun; 111:342-347. PMID: 29197529.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Anderson LN, Carsley S, Lebovic G, Borkhoff CM, Maguire JL, Parkin PC, Birken CS. Misclassification of child body mass index from cut-points defined by rounded percentiles instead of Z-scores. BMC Res Notes. 2017 Nov 28; 10(1):639. PMID: 29183360.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Chaput JP, Gray CE, Poitras VJ, Carson V, Gruber R, Birken CS, MacLean JE, Aubert S, Sampson M, Tremblay MS. Systematic review of the relationships between sleep duration and health indicators in the early years (0-4 years). BMC Public Health. 2017 Nov 20; 17(Suppl 5):855. PMID: 29219078.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Carsley S, Birken CS, Tu K, Pullenayegum E, Parkin PC. Examining growth monitoring practices for children in primary care. Arch Dis Child. 2018 Apr; 103(4):406-407. PMID: 29074730.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Parkin PC, Hamid J, Borkhoff CM, Abdullah K, Atenafu EG, Birken CS, Maguire JL, Azad A, Higgins V, Adeli K. Laboratory reference intervals in the assessment of iron status in young children. BMJ Paediatr Open. 2017; 1(1):e000074. PMID: 29637115.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Persaud N, Ziai H, Lebovic G, Maguire JL, Khovratovich M, Simpson JAR, Adeli K, Hamilton J, McCrindle BW, Parkin PC, Birken CS. Parent reported nutritional risk and laboratory indices of cardiometabolic risk and in preschool-aged children. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Aug 28; 30(8):839-846. PMID: 28723611.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Sharp JR, Maguire JL, Carsley S, Abdullah K, Chen Y, Perrin EM, Parkin PC, Birken CS. Temperament Is Associated With Outdoor Free Play in Young Children: A TARGet Kids! Study. Acad Pediatr. 2018 May - Jun; 18(4):445-451. PMID: 28842293.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Aglipay M, Birken CS, Parkin PC, Loeb MB, Thorpe K, Chen Y, Laupacis A, Mamdani M, Macarthur C, Hoch JS, Mazzulli T, Maguire JL. Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Wintertime Vitamin D Supplementation on Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Young Healthy Children. JAMA. 2017 Jul 18; 318(3):245-254. PMID: 28719693.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Anderson LN, Heong SW, Chen Y, Thorpe KE, Adeli K, Howard A, Sochett E, Birken CS, Parkin PC, Maguire JL. Vitamin D and Fracture Risk in Early Childhood: A Case-Control Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2017 06 15; 185(12):1255-1262. PMID: 28459987.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Morency ME, Birken CS, Lebovic G, Chen Y, L'Abbé M, Lee GJ, Maguire JL. Association between noncow milk beverage consumption and childhood height. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug; 106(2):597-602. PMID: 28592600.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Carsley SE, Anderson LN, Plumptre L, Parkin PC, Maguire JL, Birken CS. Severe Obesity, Obesity, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children 0 to 6 Years of Age. Child Obes. 2017 Oct; 13(5):415-424. PMID: 30418801.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Omand JA, To T, O'Connor DL, Parkin PC, Birken CS, Thorpe KE, Maguire JL. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D supplementation and health-service utilization for upper respiratory tract infection in young children. Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jul; 20(10):1816-1824. PMID: 28578751.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Vanderhout SM, Birken CS, Maguire JL. Reply to MF Rolland-Cachera et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 06; 105(6):1567. PMID: 28572249.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Ryckman K, Richmond SA, Anderson LN, Birken CS, Parkin PC, Macarthur C, Maguire JL, Howard AW. Temperament and fracture in preschool-aged children. Paediatr Child Health. 2017 Jul; 22(4):195-198. PMID: 29479213.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Plumptre L, Anderson LN, Chen Y, Carsley S, Narang I, Hamilton J, McCrindle B, Parkin PC, Maguire JL, Birken CS. Longitudinal Analysis of Sleep Duration and Cardiometabolic Risk in Young Children. Child Obes. 2017 Aug; 13(4):291-299. PMID: 30433827.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Abdullah K, Birken CS, Maguire JL, Fehlings D, Hanley AJ, Thorpe KE, Parkin PC. Re-Evaluation of Serum Ferritin Cut-Off Values for the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in Children Aged 12-36 Months. J Pediatr. 2017 Sep; 188:287-290. PMID: 28431746.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Lavigne M, Birken CS, Maguire JL, Straus S, Laupacis A. Priority setting in paediatric preventive care research. Arch Dis Child. 2017 08; 102(8):748-753. PMID: 28404552.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Wong PD, Birken CS, Parkin PC, Venu I, Chen Y, Schroth RJ, Maguire JL. Total Breast-Feeding Duration and Dental Caries in Healthy Urban Children. Acad Pediatr. 2017 04; 17(3):310-315. PMID: 28385327.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Carsley S, Liang LY, Chen Y, Parkin P, Maguire J, Birken CS. The impact of daycare attendance on outdoor free play in young children. J Public Health (Oxf). 2017 03 01; 39(1):145-152. PMID: 26860698.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Birken CS, Tu K, Oud W, Carsley S, Hanna M, Lebovic G, Guttmann A. Determining rates of overweight and obese status in children using electronic medical records: Cross-sectional study. Can Fam Physician. 2017 Feb; 63(2):e114-e122. PMID: 28209703.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Vanderhout SM, Birken CS, Parkin PC, Lebovic G, Chen Y, O'Connor DL, Maguire JL. Relation between milk-fat percentage, vitamin D, and BMI z score in early childhood. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 12; 104(6):1657-1664. PMID: 27852618.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Rothman L, Macpherson AK, Howard A, Parkin PC, Richmond SA, Birken CS. Direct observations of active school transportation and stroller use in kindergarten children. Prev Med Rep. 2016 Dec; 4:558-562. PMID: 27818914.
      View in: PubMed
    43. van den Heuvel M, Borkhoff CM, Koroshegyi C, Zabih W, Reijneveld SA, Maguire J, Birken C, Parkin P. Diagnostic accuracy of developmental screening in primary care at the 18-month health supervision visit: a cross-sectional study. CMAJ Open. 2016 Oct-Dec; 4(4):E634-E640. PMID: 28018875.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Anderson LN, Maguire JL, Lebovic G, Hanley AJ, Hamilton J, Adeli K, McCrindle BW, Borkhoff CM, Parkin PC, Birken CS. Duration of Fasting, Serum Lipids, and Metabolic Profile in Early Childhood. J Pediatr. 2017 01; 180:47-52.e1. PMID: 27742126.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Coles N, Birken C, Hamilton J. Emerging treatments for severe obesity in children and adolescents. BMJ. 2016 Sep 29; 354:i4116. PMID: 27686795.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Saunders NR, Parkin PC, Birken CS, Maguire JL, Borkhoff CM. Iron status of young children from immigrant families. Arch Dis Child. 2016 Dec; 101(12):1130-1136. PMID: 27582457.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Rivera J, McPherson A, Hamilton J, Birken C, Coons M, Iyer S, Agarwal A, Lalloo C, Stinson J. Mobile Apps for Weight Management: A Scoping Review. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2016 Jul 26; 4(3):e87. PMID: 27460502; PMCID: PMC4978862.
    48. Lee GJ, Birken CS, Parkin PC, Lebovic G, Chen Y, L'Abbe MR, Maguire JL, Maguire JL. Goat's Milk, Plant-based Milk, Cow's Milk, and Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Early Childhood. Epidemiology. 2016 07; 27(4):e29-31. PMID: 27046131.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Furlong KR, Anderson LN, Kang H, Lebovic G, Parkin PC, Maguire JL, O'Connor DL, Birken CS. BMI-for-Age and Weight-for-Length in Children 0 to 2 Years. Pediatrics. 2016 07; 138(1). PMID: 27343232.
      View in: PubMed
    50. van den Heuvel M, Chen Y, Abdullah K, Maguire JL, Parkin PC, Birken CS. The concurrent and longitudinal associations of temperament and nutritional risk factors in early childhood. Pediatr Obes. 2017 12; 12(6):431-438. PMID: 27273610.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Cooney M, Kaufman M, Birken C, Dettmer E, Toulany A. Impact of Adolescent Gender Dysphoria on Treatment Uptake in an Obesity Management Program. J Pediatr. 2016 09; 176:207-9. PMID: 27283460.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Aliarzadeh B, Meaney C, Moineddin R, White D, Birken C, Parkin P, Greiver M. Hypertension screening and follow-up in children and adolescents in a Canadian primary care population sample: a retrospective cohort studystudy. CMAJ Open. 2016 Apr-Jun; 4(2):E230-5. PMID: 27398368; PMCID: PMC4933603.
    53. Porepa M, Chan M, Huber J, Lam CG, Au H, Birken CS. Creating a student-led health magazine with an urban, multicultural, resource-restricted elementary school: Approach, process and impact. Paediatr Child Health. 2016 Apr; 21(3):119-22. PMID: 27398046; PMCID: PMC4933067 [Available on 10/01/16].
    54. Mehta K, Dell S, Birken C, Al-Saleh S. Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis. Can Respir J. 2016; 2016:4938632. PMID: 27445543; PMCID: PMC4904551.
    55. DeGroot J, Anderson LN, Chen Y, Birken CS, Parkin PC, Carsley S, Khovratovich M, Mamdani M, Maguire JL. Mandatory labeling requirements and over-the-counter cough and cold medication use in early childhood. Can J Public Health. 2016 Mar 16; 106(8):e477-82. PMID: 26986907.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Darmawikarta D, Chen Y, Lebovic G, Birken CS, Parkin PC, Maguire JL. Total Duration of Breastfeeding, Vitamin D Supplementation, and Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D. Am J Public Health. 2016 Apr; 106(4):714-9. PMID: 26890167.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Cox KA, Parkin PC, Anderson LN, Chen Y, Birken CS, Maguire JL, Macarthur C, Borkhoff CM. Association Between Meat and Meat-Alternative Consumption and Iron Stores in Early Childhood. Acad Pediatr. 2016 Nov - Dec; 16(8):783-791. PMID: 26804490.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Vanderhout SM, Birken CS, Parkin PC, Lebovic G, Chen Y, O'Connor DL, Maguire JL. Higher milk fat content is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in early childhood. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 May; 41(5):516-21. PMID: 27138972.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Hadjiyannakis S, Buchholz A, Chanoine JP, Jetha MM, Gaboury L, Hamilton J, Birken C, Morrison KM, Legault L, Bridger T, Cook SR, Lyons J, Sharma AM, Ball GD. The Edmonton Obesity Staging System for Pediatrics: A proposed clinical staging system for paediatric obesity. Paediatr Child Health. 2016 Jan-Feb; 21(1):21-6. PMID: 26941556; PMCID: PMC4758422.
    60. Carsley SE, Tu K, Birken C. Implementing growth monitoring recommendations. CMAJ. 2015 Dec 08; 187(18):1391. PMID: 26644549; PMCID: PMC4674412 [Available on 12/08/16].
    61. Anderson LN, Lebovic G, Hamilton J, Hanley AJ, McCrindle BW, Maguire JL, Parkin PC, Birken CS. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and the Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Early Childhood. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2016 Mar; 30(2):160-70. PMID: 26645704.
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    62. Sarker H, Anderson LN, Borkhoff CM, Abreo K, Tremblay MS, Lebovic G, Maguire JL, Parkin PC, Birken CS. Validation of parent-reported physical activity and sedentary time by accelerometry in young children. BMC Res Notes. 2015 Nov 30; 8:735. PMID: 26621253; PMCID: PMC4666154.
    63. Borkhoff CM, Heale LD, Anderson LN, Tremblay MS, Maguire JL, Parkin PC, Birken CS. Objectively measured physical activity of young Canadian children using accelerometry. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Dec; 40(12):1302-8. PMID: 26573442.
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    64. Birken CS, Lichtblau B, Lenton-Brym T, Tucker P, Maguire JL, Parkin PC, Mahant S. Parents' perception of stroller use in young children: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2015 Aug 20; 15:808. PMID: 26289426; PMCID: PMC4546049.
    65. Abdullah K, Thorpe KE, Maguire JL, Birken CS, Fehlings D, Hanley AJ, Parkin PC. Risk factors, practice variation and hematological outcomes of children identified with non-anemic iron deficiency following screening in primary care setting. Paediatr Child Health. 2015 Aug-Sep; 20(6):302-6. PMID: 26435669; PMCID: PMC4578469.
    66. Birken CS, Lebovic G, Anderson LN, McCrindle BW, Mamdani M, Kandasamy S, Khovratovich M, Parkin PC, Maguire JL. Association between Vitamin D and Circulating Lipids in Early Childhood. PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0131938. PMID: 26176958.
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    67. Abdullah K, Thorpe KE, Mamak E, Maguire JL, Birken CS, Fehlings D, Hanley AJ, Macarthur C, Zlotkin SH, Parkin PC. An internal pilot study for a randomized trial aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of iron interventions in children with non-anemic iron deficiency: the OptEC trial. Trials. 2015 Jul 14; 16:303. PMID: 26170014; PMCID: PMC4501099.
    68. Parkin PC, DeGroot J, Maguire JL, Birken CS, Zlotkin S. Severe iron-deficiency anaemia and feeding practices in young children. Public Health Nutr. 2016 Mar; 19(4):716-22. PMID: 26027426.
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    69. Gurnani M, Birken C, Hamilton J. Childhood Obesity: Causes, Consequences, and Management. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2015 Aug; 62(4):821-40. PMID: 26210619.
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    70. Anderson LN, Chen Y, Omand JA, Birken CS, Parkin PC, To T, Maguire JL. Vitamin D exposure during pregnancy, but not early childhood, is associated with risk of childhood wheezing. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2015 Aug; 6(4):308-16. PMID: 25885931.
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    71. Abdullah K, Thorpe KE, Mamak E, Maguire JL, Birken CS, Fehlings D, Hanley AJ, Macarthur C, Zlotkin SH, Parkin PC. Optimizing early child development for young children with non-anemic iron deficiency in the primary care practice setting (OptEC): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2015 Apr 02; 16:132. PMID: 25873050; PMCID: PMC4389731.
    72. Spence ND, Birken C, Haines J, Ball GD. Back to the future - a case for home visits for managing severe paediatric obesity. Acta Paediatr. 2015 Jun; 104(6):547-9. PMID: 25703657.
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    73. Lee GJ, Birken CS, Parkin PC, Lebovic G, Chen Y, L'Abbé MR, Maguire JL. Consumption of non-cow's milk beverages and serum vitamin D levels in early childhood. CMAJ. 2014 Nov 18; 186(17):1287-93. PMID: 25332367.
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    74. Beck CE, Boydell KM, Stasiulis E, Blanchette VS, Llewellyn-Thomas H, Birken CS, Breakey VR, Parkin PC. Shared decision making in the management of children with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2014 Oct; 36(7):559-65. PMID: 24577546.
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    75. Luca P, Dettmer E, Khoury M, Grewal P, Manlhiot C, McCrindle BW, Birken CS, Hamilton JK. Adolescents with severe obesity: outcomes of participation in an intensive obesity management programme. Pediatr Obes. 2015 Aug; 10(4):275-82. PMID: 25236943.
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    76. Carsley S, Borkhoff CM, Maguire JL, Birken CS, Khovratovich M, McCrindle B, Macarthur C, Parkin PC. Cohort Profile: The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!). Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Jun; 44(3):776-88. PMID: 24982016; PMCID: PMC4521122.
    77. Darmawikarta D, Chen Y, Carsley S, Birken CS, Parkin PC, Schroth RJ, Maguire JL. Factors associated with dental care utilization in early childhood. Pediatrics. 2014 Jun; 133(6):e1594-600. PMID: 24799544.
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    78. Erdle SC, Birken CS, Parkin PC, Urquia ML, Maguire JL. Poor agreement between family-level and neighborhood-level income measures among urban families with children. J Clin Epidemiol. 2014 Jul; 67(7):838-40. PMID: 24751177.
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    79. Maguire JL, Birken C, Thorpe KE, Sochett EB, Parkin PC. Parathyroid hormone as a functional indicator of vitamin D sufficiency in children. JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Apr; 168(4):383-5. PMID: 24535147.
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    80. Maguire JL, Birken CS, Loeb MB, Mamdani M, Thorpe K, Hoch JS, Mazzulli T, Borkhoff CM, Macarthur C, Parkin PC. DO IT Trial: vitamin D Outcomes and Interventions in Toddlers - a TARGet Kids! randomized controlled trial. BMC Pediatr. 2014 Feb 08; 14:37. PMID: 24506910; PMCID: PMC3942179.
    81. Omand JA, Carsley S, Darling PB, Parkin PC, Birken CS, Urquia ML, Khovratovich M, Maguire JL. Evaluating the accuracy of a geographic closed-ended approach to ethnicity measurement, a practical alternative. Ann Epidemiol. 2014 Apr; 24(4):246-53. PMID: 24529516.
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    82. Birken C, Hamilton J. Obesity in a young child. CMAJ. 2014 Apr 01; 186(6):443-4. PMID: 24418984; PMCID: PMC3971030.
    83. Davies DA, Hamilton J, Dettmer E, Birken C, Jeffery A, Hagen J, Anvari M, Langer JC. Adolescent bariatric surgery: the Canadian perspective. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2014 Feb; 23(1):31-6. PMID: 24491366.
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    84. Persaud N, Maguire JL, Lebovic G, Carsley S, Khovratovich M, Randall Simpson JA, McCrindle BW, Parkin PC, Birken C. Association between serum cholesterol and eating behaviours during early childhood: a cross-sectional study. CMAJ. 2013 Aug 06; 185(11):E531-6. PMID: 23775611; PMCID: PMC3735770.
    85. Omand JA, Darling PB, Parkin PC, Birken CS, Khovratovich M, Thorpe KE, Carsley S, DeGroot J, Maguire JL. Non-Western immigrant children have lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D than children from Western families. Public Health Nutr. 2014 Jul; 17(7):1547-54. PMID: 23701731.
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    86. Maguire JL, Salehi L, Birken CS, Carsley S, Mamdani M, Thorpe KE, Lebovic G, Khovratovich M, Parkin PC. Association between total duration of breastfeeding and iron deficiency. Pediatrics. 2013 May; 131(5):e1530-7. PMID: 23589818.
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    87. Birken CS, Khambalia A, Dupuis A, Pastor A, Lee M, Padavattan K, Mekky M, Odame I, Parkin PC. Morphine is associated with acute chest syndrome in children hospitalized with sickle cell disease. Hosp Pediatr. 2013 Apr; 3(2):149-55. PMID: 24340416.
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    88. Maguire JL, Birken CS, Khovratovich M, Degroot J, Carsley S, Thorpe KE, Mamdani M, Parkin PC. Modifiable determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in early childhood: opportunities for prevention. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Mar 01; 167(3):230-5. PMID: 23318560.
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    89. Folman R, Grenier D, Birken C, Campisi P, Do MT, Forte V, Maclusky I, McCrindle BW, Narang I, Witmans M. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: A different beast. Paediatr Child Health. 2013 Jan; 18(1):36. PMID: 24381492; PMCID: PMC3680272.
    90. Luca PD, Chan M, Basak S, Segal AO, Porepa M, Pinard M, Au H, Birken CS. A qualitative description of the development and evaluation of our voice, a health promotion magazine created by pediatric patients for hospitalized pediatric patients. Hosp Pediatr. 2013 Jan; 3(1):59-64. PMID: 24319837.
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    91. Maguire JL, Lebovic G, Kandasamy S, Khovratovich M, Mamdani M, Birken CS, Parkin PC. The relationship between cow's milk and stores of vitamin D and iron in early childhood. Pediatrics. 2013 Jan; 131(1):e144-51. PMID: 23248224.
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    92. Birken CS, Maguire J, Mekky M, Manlhiot C, Beck CE, Degroot J, Jacobson S, Peer M, Taylor C, McCrindle BW, Parkin PC. Office-based randomized controlled trial to reduce screen time in preschool children. Pediatrics. 2012 Dec; 130(6):1110-5. PMID: 23129085.
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    93. Morinis J, Maguire J, Khovratovich M, McCrindle BW, Parkin PC, Birken CS. Paediatric obesity research in early childhood and the primary care setting: the TARGet Kids! research network. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 04; 9(4):1343-54. PMID: 22690197; PMCID: PMC3366615.
    94. Birken CS, Maguire J, McCrindle BW, Hamilton J, Parkin PC. Childhood obesity prevention: opportunities in healthcare. Healthc Q. 2012; 15 Spec No 4:48-53. PMID: 24955514.
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    95. Wengle JG, Hamilton JK, Manlhiot C, Bradley TJ, Katzman DK, Sananes R, Adeli K, Birken CS, Abadilla AA, McCrindle BW. The 'Golden Keys' to health - a healthy lifestyle intervention with randomized individual mentorship for overweight and obesity in adolescents. Paediatr Child Health. 2011 Oct; 16(8):473-8. PMID: 23024585; PMCID: PMC3202386.
    96. Wahi G, Parkin PC, Beyene J, Uleryk EM, Birken CS. Effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing screen time in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Nov; 165(11):979-86. PMID: 21727260.
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    97. Birken CS, Maguire J, Mekky M, Manlhiot C, Beck CE, Jacobson S, Peer M, Taylor C, McCrindle BW, Parkin PC. Parental factors associated with screen time in pre-school children in primary-care practice: a TARGet Kids! study. Public Health Nutr. 2011 Dec; 14(12):2134-8. PMID: 21466741.
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    98. Maguire JL, Birken CS, O'Connor DL, Macarthur C, Thorpe KE, Mamdani M, Parkin PC. Prevalence and predictors of low vitamin D concentrations in urban Canadian toddlers. Paediatr Child Health. 2011 Feb; 16(2):e11-5. PMID: 22294872; PMCID: PMC3043048.
    99. Maguire JL, Birken CS, Jacobson S, Peer M, Taylor C, Khambalia A, Mekky M, Thorpe KE, Parkin P. Office-based intervention to reduce bottle use among toddlers: TARGet Kids! Pragmatic, randomized trial. Pediatrics. 2010 Aug; 126(2):e343-50. PMID: 20624802.
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    100. Birken CS, Parkin PC, To T, Wilkins R, Macarthur C. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and homicides among children in urban Canada. Pediatrics. 2009 May; 123(5):e815-9. PMID: 19403474.
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    101. Porepa M, Lam C, Huber JF, Au H, Birken CS. Kids on kids' health: Creating a child health magazine with students from an urban, multicultural, low-income elementary school. Paediatr Child Health. 2009 Apr; 14(4):219-21. PMID: 20357917; PMCID: PMC2690532.
    102. French AE, Benseler SM, Birken CS. Case 2: A teenage boy with epistaxis. Paediatr Child Health. 2009 Feb; 14(2):99-102. PMID: 19436560; PMCID: PMC2661344.
    103. Tan M, Armstrong D, Birken C, Bitnun A, Caldarone CA, Cox P, Kahr W, Macgregor D, Askalan R. Bacterial endocarditis in a child presenting with acute arterial ischemic stroke: should thrombolytic therapy be absolutely contraindicated? Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009 Feb; 51(2):151-4. PMID: 19191846.
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    104. Au H, Harrison M, Ahmet A, Orsino A, Beck CE, Tallett S, Gans M, Birken CS. Residents as health advocates: The development, implementation and evaluation of a child advocacy initiative at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario). Paediatr Child Health. 2007 Sep; 12(7):567-72. PMID: 19030427; PMCID: PMC2528778.
    105. Birken CS, Parkin PC, To T, Macarthur C. Trends in rates of death from unintentional injury among Canadian children in urban areas: influence of socioeconomic status. CMAJ. 2006 Oct 10; 175(8):867. PMID: 16998078; PMCID: PMC1586087.
    106. Birken CS, Parkin PC, Macarthur C. Asthma severity scores for preschoolers displayed weaknesses in reliability, validity, and responsiveness. J Clin Epidemiol. 2004 Nov; 57(11):1177-81. PMID: 15567635.
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    107. Birken CS, Macarthur C. Socioeconomic status and injury risk in children. Paediatr Child Health. 2004 May; 9(5):323-5. PMID: 19657518; PMCID: PMC2721183.
    108. Birken CS, Parkin PC. In which journals will pediatricians find the best evidence for clinical practice? Pediatrics. 1999 May; 103(5 Pt 1):941-7. PMID: 10224169.
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