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Cynthia Hawkins

TitlePaediatric Pathologist
InstitutionThe Hospital for Sick Children
DepartmentPaediatric Laboratory Medicine (PLM)
Address555 University Avenue
Toronto ON M5G 1X8
Phone416-813-1500
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    University of Western Ontario BSc1992Physiology
    University of Western Ontario PhD1996Physiology
    University of Western OntarioMD1997
    University of Toronto FRCPC 2002Neuropathology
    Collapse awards and honors
    1992John D. Schultz Science Prize and Scholarship, Heart and Stroke Foundation
    1993 - 1996Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Medical Scientist Traineeship
    1999Mary Tom Award, Canadian Association of Neuropathology
    2003 - 2007Eli-Lilly/CCO/CIHR Clinician Scientist Award
    2010Lotte-Strauss Prize, Society for Paediatric Pathology
    2009 - 2017Lucien J. Rubinstein Award, American Association of Neuropathologists

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Dr. Hawkins obtained her PhD in 1996 and her MD in 1997 from the University of Western Ontario. She completed her residency training in neuropathology at the University of Toronto in 2002, including a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Zurich. Dr. Hawkins joined The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) as a neuropathologist in 2002 and has been appointed at the Research Institute in the Cell Biology program since 2004. She is a principal investigator at the Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre and a Professor at the University of Toronto.

    Dr. Hawkins is a paediatric neuropathologist at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids). Her practice involves both surgical and autopsy neuropathology and includes neuro-oncologic, neuromuscular and neurodevelopmental disease.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
         (Cynthia Hawkins)
    OICR
    Synthetic lethality drug screen for H3.3K27M-positive Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)
    Role: PI

         (Cynthia Hawkins)
    Ontario Institutes for Cancer Research
    Development of pediatric OncoScan genomic and SNP array of clinical implementation
    Role: PI

         (Cynthia Hawkins)
    CIHR
    Defining the role of the histone 3 (H3.3G34R) mutation in the pathogenesis of pediatric high grade astrocytoma
    Role: PI

         (Cynthia Hawkins)
    B.r.a.i.n.child
    Transcriptional heterogeneity and regulatory control of circular RNAs in DIPGs
    Role: PI

         (Cynthia Hawkins)
    Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute
    The role of histones in the development of paediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma
    Role: PI

         (Cynthia Hawkins)
    The Cure Starts Now Foundation
    Exploring the interactome of H3K27M to find therapeutic targets for DIPG
    Role: PI

         (Cynthia Hawkins)
    SickKids Garron Family Cancer Centre/ Brain Tumour Research Centre
    Better off without you: histone mutants in pediatric glioblastoma and their impact on histone clipping
    Role: PI

         (Cynthia Hawkins)
    Canadian Children’s Brain Cancer Foundation
    Exploring the interactome to find therapeutic targets for DIPG
    Role: PI

         (Cynthia Hawkins)
    Meagan’s Walk
    Validation of mutant ACVR1 as a therapeutic target for DIPG
    Role: PI

         (Cynthia Hawkins)
    Canadian Children’s Brain Cancer Foundation
    Development of DIPG Bioinformatic repository
    Role: PI

         (Cynthia Hawkins)
    Curing Kids Cancer
    Novel Immunotherapies for pediatric high-grade gliomas
    Role: PI

         (Cynthia Hawkins)
    Genome Canada
    Clinical development and translation of genomics-driven paediatric cancer diagnostics using NanoString technology
    Role: PI

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Ryall S, Arnoldo A, Sheth J, Singh SK, Hawkins C. Detecting Stem Cell Marker Expression Using the NanoString nCounter System. Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1869:57-67. PMID: 30324513.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Lee DD, Leão R, Komosa M, Gallo M, Zhang CH, Lipman T, Remke M, Heidari A, Nunes NM, Apolónio JD, Price AJ, De Mello RA, Dias JS, Huntsman D, Hermanns T, Wild PJ, Vanner R, Zadeh G, Karamchandani J, Das S, Taylor MD, Hawkins CE, Wasserman JD, Figueiredo A, Hamilton RJ, Minden MD, Wani K, Diplas B, Yan H, Aldape K, Akbari MR, Danesh A, Pugh TJ, Dirks PB, Castelo-Branco P, Tabori U. DNA hypermethylation within TERT promoter upregulates TERT expression in cancer. J Clin Invest. 2018 Dec 03. PMID: 30358567.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Tsoli M, Shen H, Mayoh C, Franshaw L, Ehteda A, Upton D, Carvalho D, Vinci M, Meel MH, van Vuurden D, Plessier A, Castel D, Drissi R, Farrell M, Cryan J, Crimmins D, Caird J, Pears J, Francis S, Ludlow LEA, Carai A, Mastronuzzi A, Liu B, Hansford J, Gottardo NG, Hassall T, Kirby M, Fouladi M, Hawkins C, Monje M, Grill J, Jones C, Hulleman E, Ziegler DS. Correction to: International experience in the development of patient-derived xenograft models of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. J Neurooncol. 2018 Nov 27. PMID: 30484110.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Tsang DS, Murray L, Ramaswamy V, Zapotocky M, Tabori U, Bartels U, Huang A, Dirks PB, Taylor MD, Hawkins C, Bouffet E, Laperriere N. Craniospinal irradiation as part of re-irradiation for children with recurrent intracranial ependymoma. Neuro Oncol. 2018 Nov 19. PMID: 30452715.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Tsoli M, Shen H, Mayoh C, Franshaw L, Ehteda A, Upton D, Carvalho D, Vinci M, Meel MH, van Vuurden D, Plessier A, Castel D, Drissi R, Farrell M, Cryan J, Crimmins D, Caird J, Pears J, Francis S, Ludlow LEA, Carai A, Mastronuzzi A, Liu B, Hansford J, Gottardo N, Hassall T, Kirby M, Fouladi M, Hawkins C, Monje M, Grill J, Jones C, Hulleman E, Ziegler DS. International experience in the development of patient-derived xenograft models of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. J Neurooncol. 2018 Nov 16. PMID: 30446898.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Ovadia A, Sharfe N, Hawkins C, Laughlin S, Roifman CM. Two different STAT1 gain-of-function mutations lead to diverse IFN-?-mediated gene expression. NPJ Genom Med. 2018; 3:23. PMID: 30131873.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Sheth J, Arnoldo A, Zhong Y, Marrano P, Pereira C, Ryall S, Thorner P, Hawkins C, Somers GR. Sarcoma Subgrouping by Detection of Fusion Transcripts Using NanoString nCounter Technology. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2018 Aug 08; 1093526618790747. PMID: 30089422.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Amayiri N, Swaidan M, Al-Hussaini M, Halalsheh H, Al-Nassan A, Musharbash A, Tabori U, Hawkins C, Bouffet E. Sustained Response to Targeted Therapy in a Patient With Disseminated Anaplastic Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2018 Aug; 40(6):478-482. PMID: 29200156.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Liang L, Coudière-Morrison L, Tatari N, Stromecki M, Fresnoza A, Porter CJ, Del Bigio MR, Hawkins C, Chan JA, Ryken TC, Taylor MD, Ramaswamy V, Werbowetski-Ogilvie TE. CD271+ Cells Are Diagnostic and Prognostic and Exhibit Elevated MAPK Activity in SHH Medulloblastoma. Cancer Res. 2018 Aug 15; 78(16):4745-4759. PMID: 29930101.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Garzia L, Kijima N, Morrissy AS, De Antonellis P, Guerreiro-Stucklin A, Holgado BL, Wu X, Wang X, Parsons M, Zayne K, Manno A, Kuzan-Fischer C, Nor C, Donovan LK, Liu J, Qin L, Garancher A, Liu KW, Mansouri S, Luu B, Thompson YY, Ramaswamy V, Peacock J, Farooq H, Skowron P, Shih DJH, Li A, Ensan S, Robbins CS, Cybulsky M, Mitra S, Ma Y, Moore R, Mungall A, Cho YJ, Weiss WA, Chan JA, Hawkins CE, Massimino M, Jabado N, Zapotocky M, Sumerauer D, Bouffet E, Dirks P, Tabori U, Sorensen PHB, Brastianos PK, Aldape K, Jones SJM, Marra MA, Woodgett JR, Wechsler-Reya RJ, Fults DW, Taylor MD. A Hematogenous Route for Medulloblastoma Leptomeningeal Metastases. Cell. 2018 May 31; 173(6):1549. PMID: 29856958.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Hoffman LM, Veldhuijzen van Zanten SEM, Colditz N, Baugh J, Chaney B, Hoffmann M, Lane A, Fuller C, Miles L, Hawkins C, Bartels U, Bouffet E, Goldman S, Leary S, Foreman NK, Packer R, Warren KE, Broniscer A, Kieran MW, Minturn J, Comito M, Broxson E, Shih CS, Khatua S, Chintagumpala M, Carret AS, Escorza NY, Hassall T, Ziegler DS, Gottardo N, Dholaria H, Doughman R, Benesch M, Drissi R, Nazarian J, Jabado N, Boddaert N, Varlet P, Giraud G, Castel D, Puget S, Jones C, Hulleman E, Modena P, Giagnacovo M, Antonelli M, Pietsch T, Gielen GH, Jones DTW, Sturm D, Pfister SM, Gerber NU, Grotzer MA, Pfaff E, von Bueren AO, Hargrave D, Solanki GA, Jadrijevic Cvrlje F, Kaspers GJL, Vandertop WP, Grill J, Bailey S, Biassoni V, Massimino M, Calmon R, Sanchez E, Bison B, Warmuth-Metz M, Leach J, Jones B, van Vuurden DG, Kramm CM, Fouladi M. Clinical, Radiologic, Pathologic, and Molecular Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG): A Collaborative Report From the International and European Society for Pediatric Oncology DIPG Registries. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jul 01; 36(19):1963-1972. PMID: 29746225.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Berlow NE, Svalina MN, Quist MJ, Settelmeyer TP, Zherebitskiy V, Kogiso M, Qi L, Du Y, Hawkins CE, Hulleman E, Li XN, Gultekin SH, Keller C. IL-13 receptors as possible therapeutic targets in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0193565. PMID: 29621254.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Inbar-Feigenberg M, Blaser S, Hawkins C, Shannon P, Hewson S, Chitayat D. Mitochondrial POLG related disorder presenting prenatally with fetal cerebellar growth arrest. Metab Brain Dis. 2018 Aug; 33(4):1369-1373. PMID: 29574624.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Garzia L, Kijima N, Morrissy AS, De Antonellis P, Guerreiro-Stucklin A, Holgado BL, Wu X, Wang X, Parsons M, Zayne K, Manno A, Kuzan-Fischer C, Nor C, Donovan LK, Liu J, Qin L, Garancher A, Liu KW, Mansouri S, Luu B, Thompson YY, Ramaswamy V, Peacock J, Farooq H, Skowron P, Shih DJH, Li A, Ensan S, Robbins CS, Cybulsky M, Mitra S, Ma Y, Moore R, Mungall A, Cho YJ, Weiss WA, Chan JA, Hawkins CE, Massimino M, Jabado N, Zapotocky M, Sumerauer D, Bouffet E, Dirks P, Tabori U, Sorensen PHB, Brastianos PK, Aldape K, Jones SJM, Marra MA, Woodgett JR, Wechsler-Reya RJ, Fults DW, Taylor MD. A Hematogenous Route for Medulloblastoma Leptomeningeal Metastases. Cell. 2018 Feb 22; 172(5):1050-1062.e14. PMID: 29474906.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Lassaletta A, Strother D, Laperriere N, Hukin J, Vanan MI, Goddard K, Lafay-Cousin L, Johnston DL, Zelcer S, Zapotocky M, Rajagopal R, Ramaswamy V, Hawkins C, Tabori U, Huang A, Bartels U, Bouffet E. Reirradiation in patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas: The Canadian experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018 Jun; 65(6):e26988. PMID: 29369515.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Jones DTW, Kieran MW, Bouffet E, Alexandrescu S, Bandopadhayay P, Bornhorst M, Ellison D, Fangusaro J, Fisher MJ, Foreman N, Fouladi M, Hargrave D, Hawkins C, Jabado N, Massimino M, Mueller S, Perilongo G, Schouten van Meeteren AYN, Tabori U, Warren K, Waanders AJ, Walker D, Weiss W, Witt O, Wright K, Zhu Y, Bowers DC, Pfister SM, Packer RJ. Pediatric low-grade gliomas: next biologically driven steps. Neuro Oncol. 2018 Jan 22; 20(2):160-173. PMID: 29016845.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Uddin M, Woodbury-Smith M, Chan A, Brunga L, Lamoureux S, Pellecchia G, Yuen RKC, Faheem M, Stavropoulos DJ, Drake J, Hahn CD, Hawkins C, Shlien A, Marshall CR, Turner LA, Minassian BA, Scherer SW, Boelman C. Germline and somatic mutations in STXBP1 with diverse neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Neurol Genet. 2017 Dec; 3(6):e199. PMID: 29264391.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Zapotocky M, Mata-Mbemba D, Sumerauer D, Liby P, Lassaletta A, Zamecnik J, Krskova L, Kyncl M, Stary J, Laughlin S, Arnoldo A, Hawkins C, Tabori U, Taylor MD, Bouffet E, Raybaud C, Ramaswamy V. Differential patterns of metastatic dissemination across medulloblastoma subgroups. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2018 02; 21(2):145-152. PMID: 29219788.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Tariq MU, Ahmad Z, Minhas MK, Memon A, Mushtaq N, Hawkins C. Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered: Report of an extremely rare malignant pediatric central nervous system neoplasm. SAGE Open Med Case Rep. 2017; 5:2050313X17745208. PMID: 29230288.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Tabori U, Bouffet E, Hawkins CE. Reply to D.T.W. Jones et al. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jan 01; 36(1):97. PMID: 29140773.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Campbell BB, Light N, Fabrizio D, Zatzman M, Fuligni F, de Borja R, Davidson S, Edwards M, Elvin JA, Hodel KP, Zahurancik WJ, Suo Z, Lipman T, Wimmer K, Kratz CP, Bowers DC, Laetsch TW, Dunn GP, Johanns TM, Grimmer MR, Smirnov IV, Larouche V, Samuel D, Bronsema A, Osborn M, Stearns D, Raman P, Cole KA, Storm PB, Yalon M, Opocher E, Mason G, Thomas GA, Sabel M, George B, Ziegler DS, Lindhorst S, Issai VM, Constantini S, Toledano H, Elhasid R, Farah R, Dvir R, Dirks P, Huang A, Galati MA, Chung J, Ramaswamy V, Irwin MS, Aronson M, Durno C, Taylor MD, Rechavi G, Maris JM, Bouffet E, Hawkins C, Costello JF, Meyn MS, Pursell ZF, Malkin D, Tabori U, Shlien A. Comprehensive Analysis of Hypermutation in Human Cancer. Cell. 2017 Nov 16; 171(5):1042-1056.e10. PMID: 29056344.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Abdullah S, Hawkins C, Wilson G, Yoon G, Mertens L, Carter MT, Guerin A. Noncompaction cardiomyopathy in an infant with Walker-Warburg syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2017 Nov; 173(11):3082-3086. PMID: 28980384.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Mackay A, Burford A, Carvalho D, Izquierdo E, Fazal-Salom J, Taylor KR, Bjerke L, Clarke M, Vinci M, Nandhabalan M, Temelso S, Popov S, Molinari V, Raman P, Waanders AJ, Han HJ, Gupta S, Marshall L, Zacharoulis S, Vaidya S, Mandeville HC, Bridges LR, Martin AJ, Al-Sarraj S, Chandler C, Ng HK, Li X, Mu K, Trabelsi S, Brahim DH, Kisljakov AN, Konovalov DM, Moore AS, Carcaboso AM, Sunol M, de Torres C, Cruz O, Mora J, Shats LI, Stavale JN, Bidinotto LT, Reis RM, Entz-Werle N, Farrell M, Cryan J, Crimmins D, Caird J, Pears J, Monje M, Debily MA, Castel D, Grill J, Hawkins C, Nikbakht H, Jabado N, Baker SJ, Pfister SM, Jones DTW, Fouladi M, von Bueren AO, Baudis M, Resnick A, Jones C. Integrated Molecular Meta-Analysis of 1,000 Pediatric High-Grade and Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma. Cancer Cell. 2017 10 09; 32(4):520-537.e5. PMID: 28966033.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Panwalkar P, Clark J, Ramaswamy V, Hawes D, Yang F, Dunham C, Yip S, Hukin J, Sun Y, Schipper MJ, Chavez L, Margol A, Pekmezci M, Chung C, Banda A, Bayliss JM, Curry SJ, Santi M, Rodriguez FJ, Snuderl M, Karajannis MA, Saratsis AM, Horbinski CM, Carret AS, Wilson B, Johnston D, Lafay-Cousin L, Zelcer S, Eisenstat D, Silva M, Scheinemann K, Jabado N, McNeely PD, Kool M, Pfister SM, Taylor MD, Hawkins C, Korshunov A, Judkins AR, Venneti S. Immunohistochemical analysis of H3K27me3 demonstrates global reduction in group-A childhood posterior fossa ependymoma and is a powerful predictor of outcome. Acta Neuropathol. 2017 11; 134(5):705-714. PMID: 28733933.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Lassaletta A, Zapotocky M, Mistry M, Ramaswamy V, Honnorat M, Krishnatry R, Guerreiro Stucklin A, Zhukova N, Arnoldo A, Ryall S, Ling C, McKeown T, Loukides J, Cruz O, de Torres C, Ho CY, Packer RJ, Tatevossian R, Qaddoumi I, Harreld JH, Dalton JD, Mulcahy-Levy J, Foreman N, Karajannis MA, Wang S, Snuderl M, Nageswara Rao A, Giannini C, Kieran M, Ligon KL, Garre ML, Nozza P, Mascelli S, Raso A, Mueller S, Nicolaides T, Silva K, Perbet R, Vasiljevic A, Faure Conter C, Frappaz D, Leary S, Crane C, Chan A, Ng HK, Shi ZF, Mao Y, Finch E, Eisenstat D, Wilson B, Carret AS, Hauser P, Sumerauer D, Krskova L, Larouche V, Fleming A, Zelcer S, Jabado N, Rutka JT, Dirks P, Taylor MD, Chen S, Bartels U, Huang A, Ellison DW, Bouffet E, Hawkins C, Tabori U. Therapeutic and Prognostic Implications of BRAF V600E in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Sep 01; 35(25):2934-2941. PMID: 28727518.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Ryall S, Arnoldo A, Krishnatry R, Mistry M, Khor K, Sheth J, Ling C, Leung S, Zapotocky M, Guerreiro Stucklin A, Lassaletta A, Shago M, Tabori U, Hawkins CE. Multiplex Detection of Pediatric Low-Grade Glioma Signature Fusion Transcripts and Duplications Using the NanoString nCounter System. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2017 Jul 01; 76(7):562-570. PMID: 28863456.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Ryall S, Guzman M, Elbabaa SK, Luu B, Mack SC, Zapotocky M, Taylor MD, Hawkins C, Ramaswamy V. H3 K27M mutations are extremely rare in posterior fossa group A ependymoma. Childs Nerv Syst. 2017 Jul; 33(7):1047-1051. PMID: 28623522.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Cavalli FMG, Remke M, Rampasek L, Peacock J, Shih DJH, Luu B, Garzia L, Torchia J, Nor C, Morrissy AS, Agnihotri S, Thompson YY, Kuzan-Fischer CM, Farooq H, Isaev K, Daniels C, Cho BK, Kim SK, Wang KC, Lee JY, Grajkowska WA, Perek-Polnik M, Vasiljevic A, Faure-Conter C, Jouvet A, Giannini C, Nageswara Rao AA, Li KKW, Ng HK, Eberhart CG, Pollack IF, Hamilton RL, Gillespie GY, Olson JM, Leary S, Weiss WA, Lach B, Chambless LB, Thompson RC, Cooper MK, Vibhakar R, Hauser P, van Veelen MC, Kros JM, French PJ, Ra YS, Kumabe T, López-Aguilar E, Zitterbart K, Sterba J, Finocchiaro G, Massimino M, Van Meir EG, Osuka S, Shofuda T, Klekner A, Zollo M, Leonard JR, Rubin JB, Jabado N, Albrecht S, Mora J, Van Meter TE, Jung S, Moore AS, Hallahan AR, Chan JA, Tirapelli DPC, Carlotti CG, Fouladi M, Pimentel J, Faria CC, Saad AG, Massimi L, Liau LM, Wheeler H, Nakamura H, Elbabaa SK, Perezpeña-Diazconti M, Chico Ponce de León F, Robinson S, Zapotocky M, Lassaletta A, Huang A, Hawkins CE, Tabori U, Bouffet E, Bartels U, Dirks PB, Rutka JT, Bader GD, Reimand J, Goldenberg A, Ramaswamy V, Taylor MD. Intertumoral Heterogeneity within Medulloblastoma Subgroups. Cancer Cell. 2017 06 12; 31(6):737-754.e6. PMID: 28609654.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Packer RJ, Pfister S, Bouffet E, Avery R, Bandopadhayay P, Bornhorst M, Bowers DC, Ellison D, Fangusaro J, Foreman N, Fouladi M, Gajjar A, Haas-Kogan D, Hawkins C, Ho CY, Hwang E, Jabado N, Kilburn LB, Lassaletta A, Ligon KL, Massimino M, Meeteren SV, Mueller S, Nicolaides T, Perilongo G, Tabori U, Vezina G, Warren K, Witt O, Zhu Y, Jones DT, Kieran M. Pediatric low-grade gliomas: implications of the biologic era. Neuro Oncol. 2017 06 01; 19(6):750-761. PMID: 27683733.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Margolin-Miller Y, Yanichkin N, Shichrur K, Toledano H, Ohali A, Tzaridis T, Michowitz S, Fichman-Horn S, Feinmesser M, Pfister SM, Witt H, Tabori U, Bouffet E, Ramaswamy V, Hawkins C, Taylor MD, Yaniv I, Avigad S. Prognostic relevance of miR-124-3p and its target TP53INP1 in pediatric ependymoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017 08; 56(8):639-650. PMID: 28437838.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Morrissy AS, Cavalli FMG, Remke M, Ramaswamy V, Shih DJH, Holgado BL, Farooq H, Donovan LK, Garzia L, Agnihotri S, Kiehna EN, Mercier E, Mayoh C, Papillon-Cavanagh S, Nikbakht H, Gayden T, Torchia J, Picard D, Merino DM, Vladoiu M, Luu B, Wu X, Daniels C, Horswell S, Thompson YY, Hovestadt V, Northcott PA, Jones DTW, Peacock J, Wang X, Mack SC, Reimand J, Albrecht S, Fontebasso AM, Thiessen N, Li Y, Schein JE, Lee D, Carlsen R, Mayo M, Tse K, Tam A, Dhalla N, Ally A, Chuah E, Cheng Y, Plettner P, Li HI, Corbett RD, Wong T, Long W, Loukides J, Buczkowicz P, Hawkins CE, Tabori U, Rood BR, Myseros JS, Packer RJ, Korshunov A, Lichter P, Kool M, Pfister SM, Schüller U, Dirks P, Huang A, Bouffet E, Rutka JT, Bader GD, Swanton C, Ma Y, Moore RA, Mungall AJ, Majewski J, Jones SJM, Das S, Malkin D, Jabado N, Marra MA, Taylor MD. Spatial heterogeneity in medulloblastoma. Nat Genet. 2017 May; 49(5):780-788. PMID: 28394352.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Ryall S, Tabori U, Hawkins C. A comprehensive review of paediatric low-grade diffuse glioma: pathology, molecular genetics and treatment. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2017 Apr; 34(2):51-61. PMID: 28342104.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Jones C, Karajannis MA, Jones DTW, Kieran MW, Monje M, Baker SJ, Becher OJ, Cho YJ, Gupta N, Hawkins C, Hargrave D, Haas-Kogan DA, Jabado N, Li XN, Mueller S, Nicolaides T, Packer RJ, Persson AI, Phillips JJ, Simonds EF, Stafford JM, Tang Y, Pfister SM, Weiss WA. Pediatric high-grade glioma: biologically and clinically in need of new thinking. Neuro Oncol. 2017 02 01; 19(2):153-161. PMID: 27282398.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Fossey M, Li H, Afzal S, Carret AS, Eisenstat DD, Fleming A, Hukin J, Hawkins C, Jabado N, Johnston D, Brown T, Larouche V, Scheinemann K, Strother D, Wilson B, Zelcer S, Huang A, Bouffet E, Lafay-Cousin L. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor in the first year of life: the Canadian ATRT registry experience and review of the literature. J Neurooncol. 2017 03; 132(1):155-162. PMID: 28102486.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Baugh J, Bartels U, Leach J, Jones B, Chaney B, Warren KE, Kirkendall J, Doughman R, Hawkins C, Miles L, Fuller C, Hassall T, Bouffet E, Lane A, Hargrave D, Grill J, Hoffman LM, Jones C, Towbin A, Savage SA, Monje M, Li XN, Ziegler DS, Veldhuijzen van Zanten S, Kramm CM, van Vuurden DG, Fouladi M. The international diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma registry: an infrastructure to accelerate collaborative research for an orphan disease. J Neurooncol. 2017 04; 132(2):323-331. PMID: 28093680.
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    36. Louis DN, Aldape K, Brat DJ, Capper D, Ellison DW, Hawkins C, Paulus W, Perry A, Reifenberger G, Figarella-Branger D, Wesseling P, Batchelor TT, Cairncross JG, Pfister SM, Rutkowski S, Weller M, Wick W, von Deimling A. Announcing cIMPACT-NOW: the Consortium to Inform Molecular and Practical Approaches to CNS Tumor Taxonomy. Acta Neuropathol. 2017 01; 133(1):1-3. PMID: 27909809.
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    37. Louis DN, Aldape K, Brat DJ, Capper D, Ellison DW, Hawkins C, Paulus W, Perry A, Reifenberger G, Figarella-Branger D, Wesseling P, Batchelor TT, Gregory Cairncross J, Pfister SM, Rutkowski S, Weller M, Wick W, von Deimling A. cIMPACT-NOW (the consortium to inform molecular and practical approaches to CNS tumor taxonomy): a new initiative in advancing nervous system tumor classification. Brain Pathol. 2017 11; 27(6):851-852. PMID: 27997995.
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    131. Chung B, Hinek A, Keating S, Weksberg R, Shah V, Blaser S, Hawkins C, Chitayat D. Overgrowth with increased proliferation of fibroblast and matrix metalloproteinase activity related to reduced TIMP1: a newly recognized syndrome? Am J Med Genet A. 2012 Oct; 158A(10):2373-81. PMID: 22965799.
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    133. Northcott PA, Shih DJ, Peacock J, Garzia L, Morrissy AS, Zichner T, Stütz AM, Korshunov A, Reimand J, Schumacher SE, Beroukhim R, Ellison DW, Marshall CR, Lionel AC, Mack S, Dubuc A, Yao Y, Ramaswamy V, Luu B, Rolider A, Cavalli FM, Wang X, Remke M, Wu X, Chiu RY, Chu A, Chuah E, Corbett RD, Hoad GR, Jackman SD, Li Y, Lo A, Mungall KL, Nip KM, Qian JQ, Raymond AG, Thiessen NT, Varhol RJ, Birol I, Moore RA, Mungall AJ, Holt R, Kawauchi D, Roussel MF, Kool M, Jones DT, Witt H, Fernandez-L A, Kenney AM, Wechsler-Reya RJ, Dirks P, Aviv T, Grajkowska WA, Perek-Polnik M, Haberler CC, Delattre O, Reynaud SS, Doz FF, Pernet-Fattet SS, Cho BK, Kim SK, Wang KC, Scheurlen W, Eberhart CG, Fèvre-Montange M, Jouvet A, Pollack IF, Fan X, Muraszko KM, Gillespie GY, Di Rocco C, Massimi L, Michiels EM, Kloosterhof NK, French PJ, Kros JM, Olson JM, Ellenbogen RG, Zitterbart K, Kren L, Thompson RC, Cooper MK, Lach B, McLendon RE, Bigner DD, Fontebasso A, Albrecht S, Jabado N, Lindsey JC, Bailey S, Gupta N, Weiss WA, Bognár L, Klekner A, Van Meter TE, Kumabe T, Tominaga T, Elbabaa SK, Leonard JR, Rubin JB, Liau LM, Van Meir EG, Fouladi M, Nakamura H, Cinalli G, Garami M, Hauser P, Saad AG, Iolascon A, Jung S, Carlotti CG, Vibhakar R, Ra YS, Robinson S, Zollo M, Faria CC, Chan JA, Levy ML, Sorensen PH, Meyerson M, Pomeroy SL, Cho YJ, Bader GD, Tabori U, Hawkins CE, Bouffet E, Scherer SW, Rutka JT, Malkin D, Clifford SC, Jones SJ, Korbel JO, Pfister SM, Marra MA, Taylor MD. Subgroup-specific structural variation across 1,000 medulloblastoma genomes. Nature. 2012 Aug 02; 488(7409):49-56. PMID: 22832581.
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    134. Luca NJ, Atkinson A, Hawkins C, Feldman BM. Anti-signal recognition particle-positive juvenile polymyositis successfully treated with rituximab. J Rheumatol. 2012 Jul; 39(7):1483-5. PMID: 22753802.
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    135. Picard D, Miller S, Hawkins CE, Bouffet E, Rogers HA, Chan TS, Kim SK, Ra YS, Fangusaro J, Korshunov A, Toledano H, Nakamura H, Hayden JT, Chan J, Lafay-Cousin L, Hu P, Fan X, Muraszko KM, Pomeroy SL, Lau CC, Ng HK, Jones C, Van Meter T, Clifford SC, Eberhart C, Gajjar A, Pfister SM, Grundy RG, Huang A. Markers of survival and metastatic potential in childhood CNS primitive neuro-ectodermal brain tumours: an integrative genomic analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Aug; 13(8):838-48. PMID: 22691720; PMCID: PMC3615440.
    136. Khuong-Quang DA, Buczkowicz P, Rakopoulos P, Liu XY, Fontebasso AM, Bouffet E, Bartels U, Albrecht S, Schwartzentruber J, Letourneau L, Bourgey M, Bourque G, Montpetit A, Bourret G, Lepage P, Fleming A, Lichter P, Kool M, von Deimling A, Sturm D, Korshunov A, Faury D, Jones DT, Majewski J, Pfister SM, Jabado N, Hawkins C. K27M mutation in histone H3.3 defines clinically and biologically distinct subgroups of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Acta Neuropathol. 2012 Sep; 124(3):439-47. PMID: 22661320; PMCID: PMC3422615.
    137. Li M, Lockwood W, Zielenska M, Northcott P, Ra YS, Bouffet E, Yoshimoto M, Rutka JT, Yan H, Taylor MD, Eberhart C, Hawkins CE, Lam W, Squire JA, Huang A. Multiple CDK/CYCLIND genes are amplified in medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal brain tumor. Cancer Genet. 2012 May; 205(5):220-31. PMID: 22682621.
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    138. Al-Zaidy SA, Baskin B, Hawkins C, Yoon G, Ray PN, Vajsar J. Milder phenotype of congenital muscular dystrophy in a novel POMT1 mutation. Muscle Nerve. 2012 May; 45(5):752-5. PMID: 22499106.
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    139. Bouffet E, Jakacki R, Goldman S, Hargrave D, Hawkins C, Shroff M, Hukin J, Bartels U, Foreman N, Kellie S, Hilden J, Etzl M, Wilson B, Stephens D, Tabori U, Baruchel S. Phase II study of weekly vinblastine in recurrent or refractory pediatric low-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Apr 20; 30(12):1358-63. PMID: 22393086.
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    140. Ibrahim GM, Hawkins C, Fehlings MG. The diagnosis of spinal tumors: established and emerging methods. Expert Opin Med Diagn. 2012 Mar; 6(2):95-108. PMID: 23480653.
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    141. Rausch T, Jones DT, Zapatka M, Stütz AM, Zichner T, Weischenfeldt J, Jäger N, Remke M, Shih D, Northcott PA, Pfaff E, Tica J, Wang Q, Massimi L, Witt H, Bender S, Pleier S, Cin H, Hawkins C, Beck C, von Deimling A, Hans V, Brors B, Eils R, Scheurlen W, Blake J, Benes V, Kulozik AE, Witt O, Martin D, Zhang C, Porat R, Merino DM, Wasserman J, Jabado N, Fontebasso A, Bullinger L, Rücker FG, Döhner K, Döhner H, Koster J, Molenaar JJ, Versteeg R, Kool M, Tabori U, Malkin D, Korshunov A, Taylor MD, Lichter P, Pfister SM, Korbel JO. Genome sequencing of pediatric medulloblastoma links catastrophic DNA rearrangements with TP53 mutations. Cell. 2012 Jan 20; 148(1-2):59-71. PMID: 22265402; PMCID: PMC3332216.
    142. Bouffet E, Hawkins CE, Ballourah W, Taylor MD, Bartels UK, Schoenhoff N, Tsangaris E, Huang A, Kulkarni A, Mabbot DJ, Laperriere N, Tabori U. Survival benefit for pediatric patients with recurrent ependymoma treated with reirradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012 Aug 01; 83(5):1541-8. PMID: 22245198.
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    143. Visanji NP, Wong JC, Wang SX, Cappel B, Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK, Handler MH, Ochi A, Otsubo H, Rutka JT, Go C, Weiss S, Vinters HV, Hawkins CE, Desouza LV, Siu KW, Hazrati LN. A proteomic analysis of pediatric seizure cases associated with astrocytic inclusions. Epilepsia. 2012 Mar; 53(3):e50-4. PMID: 22220588.
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    144. Agnihotri S, Gajadhar AS, Ternamian C, Gorlia T, Diefes KL, Mischel PS, Kelly J, McGown G, Thorncroft M, Carlson BL, Sarkaria JN, Margison GP, Aldape K, Hawkins C, Hegi M, Guha A. Alkylpurine-DNA-N-glycosylase confers resistance to temozolomide in xenograft models of glioblastoma multiforme and is associated with poor survival in patients. J Clin Invest. 2012 Jan; 122(1):253-66. PMID: 22156195; PMCID: PMC3248301.
    145. Walker EJ, Zhang C, Castelo-Branco P, Hawkins C, Wilson W, Zhukova N, Alon N, Novokmet A, Baskin B, Ray P, Knobbe C, Dirks P, Taylor MD, Croul S, Malkin D, Tabori U. Monoallelic expression determines oncogenic progression and outcome in benign and malignant brain tumors. Cancer Res. 2012 Feb 01; 72(3):636-44. PMID: 22144470.
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    146. Northcott PA, Shih DJ, Remke M, Cho YJ, Kool M, Hawkins C, Eberhart CG, Dubuc A, Guettouche T, Cardentey Y, Bouffet E, Pomeroy SL, Marra M, Malkin D, Rutka JT, Korshunov A, Pfister S, Taylor MD. Rapid, reliable, and reproducible molecular sub-grouping of clinical medulloblastoma samples. Acta Neuropathol. 2012 Apr; 123(4):615-26. PMID: 22057785.
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    147. Venugopal C, Li N, Wang X, Manoranjan B, Hawkins C, Gunnarsson T, Hollenberg R, Klurfan P, Murty N, Kwiecien J, Farrokhyar F, Provias JP, Wynder C, Singh SK. Bmi1 marks intermediate precursors during differentiation of human brain tumor initiating cells. Stem Cell Res. 2012 Mar; 8(2):141-53. PMID: 22265735.
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    148. Ellis MJ, Cheshier S, Sharma S, Armstrong D, Hawkins C, Bouffet E, Rutka JT, Taylor MD. Intracerebral malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a child with neurofibromatosis Type 1 and middle cerebral artery aneurysm treated with endovascular coil embolization. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2011 Oct; 8(4):346-52. PMID: 21961539.
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    149. Hawkins C, Croul S. Viruses and human brain tumors: cytomegalovirus enters the fray. J Clin Invest. 2011 Oct; 121(10):3831-3. PMID: 21968105; PMCID: PMC3195487.
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    151. Ibrahim GM, Huang A, Halliday W, Dirks PB, Malkin D, Baskin B, Shago M, Hawkins C. Cribriform neuroepithelial tumour: novel clinicopathological, ultrastructural and cytogenetic findings. Acta Neuropathol. 2011 Oct; 122(4):511-4. PMID: 21918902.
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    152. Bartels U, Hawkins C, Vézina G, Kun L, Souweidane M, Bouffet E. Proceedings of the diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) Toronto Think Tank: advancing basic and translational research and cooperation in DIPG. J Neurooncol. 2011 Oct; 105(1):119-25. PMID: 21901544.
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    153. Witt H, Mack SC, Ryzhova M, Bender S, Sill M, Isserlin R, Benner A, Hielscher T, Milde T, Remke M, Jones DT, Northcott PA, Garzia L, Bertrand KC, Wittmann A, Yao Y, Roberts SS, Massimi L, Van Meter T, Weiss WA, Gupta N, Grajkowska W, Lach B, Cho YJ, von Deimling A, Kulozik AE, Witt O, Bader GD, Hawkins CE, Tabori U, Guha A, Rutka JT, Lichter P, Korshunov A, Taylor MD, Pfister SM. Delineation of two clinically and molecularly distinct subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma. Cancer Cell. 2011 Aug 16; 20(2):143-57. PMID: 21840481; PMCID: PMC4154494.
    154. Dlamini N, Freeman JL, Mackay MT, Hawkins C, Shroff M, Fullerton HJ, Deveber GA. Intracranial dissection mimicking transient cerebral arteriopathy in childhood arterial ischemic stroke. J Child Neurol. 2011 Sep; 26(9):1203-6. PMID: 21743063.
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    155. Buczkowicz P, Ma J, Hawkins C. GLI2 is a potential therapeutic target in pediatric medulloblastoma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011 Jun; 70(6):430-7. PMID: 21572341.
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    156. Fried I, Hawkins C, Scheinemann K, Tsangaris E, Hesselson L, Bartels U, Huang A, Laperriere N, Dirks P, Bouffet E, Tabori U. Favorable outcome with conservative treatment for children with low grade brainstem tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012 Apr; 58(4):556-60. PMID: 21618421.
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    157. Hawkins C, Walker E, Mohamed N, Zhang C, Jacob K, Shirinian M, Alon N, Kahn D, Fried I, Scheinemann K, Tsangaris E, Dirks P, Tressler R, Bouffet E, Jabado N, Tabori U. BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion predicts better clinical outcome in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Jul 15; 17(14):4790-8. PMID: 21610142.
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    158. Jacob K, Quang-Khuong DA, Jones DT, Witt H, Lambert S, Albrecht S, Witt O, Vezina C, Shirinian M, Faury D, Garami M, Hauser P, Klekner A, Bognar L, Farmer JP, Montes JL, Atkinson J, Hawkins C, Korshunov A, Collins VP, Pfister SM, Tabori U, Jabado N. Genetic aberrations leading to MAPK pathway activation mediate oncogene-induced senescence in sporadic pilocytic astrocytomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Jul 15; 17(14):4650-60. PMID: 21610151.
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    159. Agnihotri S, Wolf A, Munoz DM, Smith CJ, Gajadhar A, Restrepo A, Clarke ID, Fuller GN, Kesari S, Dirks PB, McGlade CJ, Stanford WL, Aldape K, Mischel PS, Hawkins C, Guha A. A GATA4-regulated tumor suppressor network represses formation of malignant human astrocytomas. J Exp Med. 2011 Apr 11; 208(4):689-702. PMID: 21464220; PMCID: PMC3135351.
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    161. Wolf A, Agnihotri S, Micallef J, Mukherjee J, Sabha N, Cairns R, Hawkins C, Guha A. Hexokinase 2 is a key mediator of aerobic glycolysis and promotes tumor growth in human glioblastoma multiforme. J Exp Med. 2011 Feb 14; 208(2):313-26. PMID: 21242296; PMCID: PMC3039857.
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    163. Hutchinson C, Elbers J, Halliday W, Branson H, Laughlin S, Armstrong D, Hawkins C, Westmacott R, Benseler SM. Treatment of small vessel primary CNS vasculitis in children: an open-label cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2010 Nov; 9(11):1078-84. PMID: 20889380.
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    164. Elbers J, Halliday W, Hawkins C, Hutchinson C, Benseler SM. Brain biopsy in children with primary small-vessel central nervous system vasculitis. Ann Neurol. 2010 Nov; 68(5):602-10. PMID: 21031577.
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    165. Wilson JR, Vachhrajani S, Li J, Sun M, Hawkins C, Rutka JT. Pediatric sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: case report and literature review. Can J Neurol Sci. 2010 Nov; 37(6):873-7. PMID: 21059557.
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    166. Zhou L, Picard D, Ra YS, Li M, Northcott PA, Hu Y, Stearns D, Hawkins C, Taylor MD, Rutka J, Der SD, Huang A. Silencing of thrombospondin-1 is critical for myc-induced metastatic phenotypes in medulloblastoma. Cancer Res. 2010 Oct 15; 70(20):8199-210. PMID: 20876797.
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    167. Northcott PA, Korshunov A, Witt H, Hielscher T, Eberhart CG, Mack S, Bouffet E, Clifford SC, Hawkins CE, French P, Rutka JT, Pfister S, Taylor MD. Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 10; 29(11):1408-14. PMID: 20823417; PMCID: PMC4874239.
    168. Barnett CP, Wilson GJ, Chiasson DA, Gross GJ, Hinek A, Hawkins C, Chitayat D. Central nervous system abnormalities in two cases with neonatal Marfan syndrome with novel mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Sep; 152A(9):2409-12. PMID: 20803651.
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    169. Finkelstein-Shechter T, Gassas A, Mabbott D, Huang A, Bartels U, Tabori U, Janzen L, Laura J, Hawkins C, Taylor M, Bouffet E. Atypical teratoid or rhabdoid tumors: improved outcome with high-dose chemotherapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2010 Jul; 32(5):e182-6. PMID: 20495479.
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    170. Angelini P, Hawkins C, Laperriere N, Bouffet E, Bartels U. Post mortem examinations in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: challenges and chances. J Neurooncol. 2011 Jan; 101(1):75-81. PMID: 20473723.
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    171. Tabori U, Shlien A, Baskin B, Levitt S, Ray P, Alon N, Hawkins C, Bouffet E, Pienkowska M, Lafay-Cousin L, Gozali A, Zhukova N, Shane L, Gonzalez I, Finlay J, Malkin D. TP53 alterations determine clinical subgroups and survival of patients with choroid plexus tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Apr 20; 28(12):1995-2001. PMID: 20308654.
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    172. Hung RM, Yoon G, Hawkins CE, Halliday W, Biggar D, Vajsar J. Cap myopathy caused by a mutation of the skeletal alpha-actin gene ACTA1. Neuromuscul Disord. 2010 Apr; 20(4):238-40. PMID: 20303757.
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    173. Zarghooni M, Bartels U, Lee E, Buczkowicz P, Morrison A, Huang A, Bouffet E, Hawkins C. Whole-genome profiling of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas highlights platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase as potential therapeutic targets. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 10; 28(8):1337-44. PMID: 20142589.
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    174. Tabori U, Baskin B, Shago M, Alon N, Taylor MD, Ray PN, Bouffet E, Malkin D, Hawkins C. Universal poor survival in children with medulloblastoma harboring somatic TP53 mutations. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 10; 28(8):1345-50. PMID: 20142599.
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    175. Wong VC, Morrison A, Tabori U, Hawkins CE. Telomerase inhibition as a novel therapy for pediatric ependymoma. Brain Pathol. 2010 Jul; 20(4):780-6. PMID: 20184588.
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    176. Li M, Lee KF, Lu Y, Clarke I, Shih D, Eberhart C, Collins VP, Van Meter T, Picard D, Zhou L, Boutros PC, Modena P, Liang ML, Scherer SW, Bouffet E, Rutka JT, Pomeroy SL, Lau CC, Taylor MD, Gajjar A, Dirks PB, Hawkins CE, Huang A. Frequent amplification of a chr19q13.41 microRNA polycistron in aggressive primitive neuroectodermal brain tumors. Cancer Cell. 2009 Dec 08; 16(6):533-46. PMID: 19962671; PMCID: PMC3431561.
    177. Kuo JS, Hawkins C, Rutka JT, Weiss MH. A pilot study of fat allograft transplantation in immunocompetent rabbits for potential neurosurgical applications. J Neurosurg. 2011 Feb; 114(2):441-5. PMID: 19961319.
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    178. Qu HQ, Jacob K, Fatet S, Ge B, Barnett D, Delattre O, Faury D, Montpetit A, Solomon L, Hauser P, Garami M, Bognar L, Hansely Z, Mio R, Farmer JP, Albrecht S, Polychronakos C, Hawkins C, Jabado N. Genome-wide profiling using single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays identifies novel chromosomal imbalances in pediatric glioblastomas. Neuro Oncol. 2010 Feb; 12(2):153-63. PMID: 20150382; PMCID: PMC2940568.
    179. Scheinemann K, Bartels U, Huang A, Hawkins C, Kulkarni AV, Bouffet E, Tabori U. Survival and functional outcome of childhood spinal cord low-grade gliomas. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009 Sep; 4(3):254-61. PMID: 19772410.
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    180. Jhas S, Henriques L, Hawkins C, Bouffet E, Rutka JT. An intracranial leiomyosarcoma in a child with neurofibromatosis type 1. Can J Neurol Sci. 2009 Jul; 36(4):491-5. PMID: 19650363.
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    181. Agnihotri S, Wolf A, Picard D, Hawkins C, Guha A. GATA4 is a regulator of astrocyte cell proliferation and apoptosis in the human and murine central nervous system. Oncogene. 2009 Aug 27; 28(34):3033-46. PMID: 19543315.
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    182. Maegawa GH, Banwell BL, Blaser S, Sorge G, Toplak M, Ackerley C, Hawkins C, Hayes J, Clarke JT. Substrate reduction therapy in juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis. Mol Genet Metab. 2009 Sep-Oct; 98(1-2):215-24. PMID: 19595619.
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    183. Baruchel S, Sharp JR, Bartels U, Hukin J, Odame I, Portwine C, Strother D, Fryer C, Halton J, Egorin MJ, Reis RM, Martinho O, Stempak D, Hawkins C, Gammon J, Bouffet E. A Canadian paediatric brain tumour consortium (CPBTC) phase II molecularly targeted study of imatinib in recurrent and refractory paediatric central nervous system tumours. Eur J Cancer. 2009 Sep; 45(13):2352-9. PMID: 19505817.
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    184. King J, Cusimano M, Hawkins C, Dirks P. Extradural middle fossa approach to a clear cell meningioma in a child. Can J Neurol Sci. 2009 Mar; 36(2):257-61. PMID: 19378726.
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    185. Baskin B, Banwell B, Khater RA, Hawkins C, Ray PN. Becker muscular dystrophy caused by an intronic mutation reducing the efficiency of the splice donor site of intron 26 of the dystrophin gene. Neuromuscul Disord. 2009 Mar; 19(3):189-92. PMID: 19230662.
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    186. Gessi M, Giangaspero F, Lauriola L, Gardiman M, Scheithauer BW, Halliday W, Hawkins C, Rosenblum MK, Burger PC, Eberhart CG. Embryonal tumors with abundant neuropil and true rosettes: a distinctive CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009 Feb; 33(2):211-7. PMID: 18987548; PMCID: PMC4512670.
    187. Askalan R, Salweski R, Tuor UI, Hutchison J, Hawkins C. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein expression after ischemic injury in the human and rat developing brain. Pediatr Res. 2009 Jan; 65(1):21-6. PMID: 18703998.
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    188. Wong VC, Ma J, Hawkins CE. Telomerase inhibition induces acute ATM-dependent growth arrest in human astrocytomas. Cancer Lett. 2009 Feb 08; 274(1):151-9. PMID: 18945545.
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    189. Tabori U, Wong V, Ma J, Shago M, Alon N, Rutka J, Bouffet E, Bartels U, Malkin D, Hawkins C. Telomere maintenance and dysfunction predict recurrence in paediatric ependymoma. Br J Cancer. 2008 Oct 07; 99(7):1129-35. PMID: 18797459; PMCID: PMC2567068.
    190. Hazrati LN, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Handler MH, Smith ML, Ochi A, Otsubo H, Rutka JT, Go C, Weiss S, Hawkins CE. Astrocytic inclusions in epilepsy: expanding the spectrum of filaminopathies. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2008 Jul; 67(7):669-76. PMID: 18596546.
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    191. Shah NC, Ray A, Bartels U, Rutka J, Bouffet E, Drake J, Hawkins CE, Huang A. Diffuse intrinsic brainstem tumors in neonates. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008 May; 1(5):382-5. PMID: 18447673.
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    192. Murji A, Redett RJ, Hawkins CE, Clarke HM. The role of intraoperative frozen section histology in obstetrical brachial plexus reconstruction. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2008 Apr; 24(3):203-9. PMID: 18461500.
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    193. Kasuga C, Nakahara Y, Ueda S, Hawkins C, Taylor MD, Smith CA, Rutka JT. Expression of MAGE and GAGE genes in medulloblastoma and modulation of resistance to chemotherapy. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008 Apr; 1(4):305-13. PMID: 18377306.
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    194. Villani A, Bouffet E, Blaser S, Millar BA, Hawkins C, Bartels U. Inherent diagnostic and treatment challenges in germinoma of the basal ganglia: a case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol. 2008 Jul; 88(3):309-14. PMID: 18365143.
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    195. Kamnasaran D, Hawkins C, Guha A. Characterization and transformation potential of "Synthetic" astrocytes differentiated from murine embryonic stem cells. Glia. 2008 Mar; 56(4):457-70. PMID: 18205175.
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    196. Venkateswaran S, Hawkins C, Wassmer E. Diagnostic yield of brain biopsies in children presenting to neurology. J Child Neurol. 2008 Mar; 23(3):253-8. PMID: 18192645.
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    197. Liang ML, Ma J, Ho M, Solomon L, Bouffet E, Rutka JT, Hawkins C. Tyrosine kinase expression in pediatric high grade astrocytoma. J Neurooncol. 2008 May; 87(3):247-53. PMID: 18193393.
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    198. Kolski HK, Hawkins C, Zatz M, de Paula F, Biggar D, Alman B, Vajsar J. Diagnosis of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2A by immunohistochemical techniques. Neuropathology. 2008 Jun; 28(3):264-8. PMID: 18031465.
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    199. Watson CP, Stinson JN, Dostrovsky JO, Hawkins C, Rutka J, Forrest C. Nerve resection and re-location may relieve causalgia: a case report. Pain. 2007 Nov; 132(1-2):211-7. PMID: 17869421.
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    200. Lamhonwah AM, Hawkins CE, Tam C, Wong J, Mai L, Tein I. Expression patterns of the organic cation/carnitine transporter family in adult murine brain. Brain Dev. 2008 Jan; 30(1):31-42. PMID: 17576045.
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    201. Hare GM, Mazer CD, Hutchison JS, McLaren AT, Liu E, Rassouli A, Ai J, Shaye RE, Lockwood JA, Hawkins CE, Sikich N, To K, Baker AJ. Severe hemodilutional anemia increases cerebral tissue injury following acute neurotrauma. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007 Sep; 103(3):1021-9. PMID: 17556499.
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    202. Parmar HA, Hawkins C, Ozelame R, Chuang S, Rutka J, Blaser S. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery ring sign as a marker of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2007 May-Jun; 31(3):348-53. PMID: 17538277.
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    203. Kamnasaran D, Qian B, Hawkins C, Stanford WL, Guha A. GATA6 is an astrocytoma tumor suppressor gene identified by gene trapping of mouse glioma model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 May 08; 104(19):8053-8. PMID: 17463088; PMCID: PMC1876570.
    204. Brat DJ, Shehata BM, Castellano-Sanchez AA, Hawkins C, Yost RB, Greco C, Mazewski C, Janss A, Ohgaki H, Perry A. Congenital glioblastoma: a clinicopathologic and genetic analysis. Brain Pathol. 2007 Jul; 17(3):276-81. PMID: 17465990.
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    205. Benifla M, Otsubo H, Ochi A, Weiss SK, Donner EJ, Shroff M, Chuang S, Hawkins C, Drake JM, Elliott I, Smith ML, Snead OC, Rutka JT. Temporal lobe surgery for intractable epilepsy in children: an analysis of outcomes in 126 children. Neurosurgery. 2006 Dec; 59(6):1203-13; discussion 1213-4. PMID: 17277683.
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    206. Askalan R, Deveber G, Ho M, Ma J, Hawkins C. Astrocytic-inducible nitric oxide synthase in the ischemic developing human brain. Pediatr Res. 2006 Dec; 60(6):687-92. PMID: 17065568.
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    207. Saengpattrachai M, Ray PN, Hawkins CE, Berzen A, Banwell BL. Grandpa and I have dystrophinopathy?: approach to asymptomatic hyperCKemia. Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Aug; 35(2):145-9. PMID: 16876015.
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    208. Bartels U, Hawkins C, Jing M, Ho M, Dirks P, Rutka J, Stephens D, Bouffet E. Vascularity and angiogenesis as predictors of growth in optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas. J Neurosurg. 2006 May; 104(5 Suppl):314-20. PMID: 16848088.
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    209. Nguyen V, Hawkins C, Bergeron C, Supala A, Huang J, Westaway D, St George-Hyslop P, Rozmahel R. Loss of nicastrin elicits an apoptotic phenotype in mouse embryos. Brain Res. 2006 May 01; 1086(1):76-84. PMID: 16626651.
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    210. Tabori U, Ma J, Carter M, Zielenska M, Rutka J, Bouffet E, Bartels U, Malkin D, Hawkins C. Human telomere reverse transcriptase expression predicts progression and survival in pediatric intracranial ependymoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Apr 01; 24(10):1522-8. PMID: 16575002.
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    211. Khanani MF, Hawkins C, Shroff M, Dirks P, Capra M, Burger PC, Bouffet E. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma in a patient with neurofibromatosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Mar; 46(3):377-80. PMID: 15800886.
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    212. Ozelame RV, Shroff M, Wood B, Bouffet E, Bartels U, Drake JM, Hawkins C, Blaser S. Basal ganglia germinoma in children with associated ipsilateral cerebral and brain stem hemiatrophy. Pediatr Radiol. 2006 Apr; 36(4):325-30. PMID: 16463029.
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    213. Tabori U, Vukovic B, Zielenska M, Hawkins C, Braude I, Rutka J, Bouffet E, Squire J, Malkin D. The role of telomere maintenance in the spontaneous growth arrest of pediatric low-grade gliomas. Neoplasia. 2006 Feb; 8(2):136-42. PMID: 16611406; PMCID: PMC1578515.
    214. Vajsar J, Zhang W, Dobyns WB, Biggar D, Holden KR, Hawkins C, Ray P, Olney AH, Burson CM, Srivastava AK, Schachter H. Carriers and patients with muscle-eye-brain disease can be rapidly diagnosed by enzymatic analysis of fibroblasts and lymphoblasts. Neuromuscul Disord. 2006 Feb; 16(2):132-6. PMID: 16427280.
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    215. Parmar H, Hawkins C, Bouffet E, Rutka J, Shroff M. Imaging findings in primary intracranial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors. Pediatr Radiol. 2006 Feb; 36(2):126-32. PMID: 16341528.
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    216. Li MH, Bouffet E, Hawkins CE, Squire JA, Huang A. Molecular genetics of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors and pineoblastoma. Neurosurg Focus. 2005 Nov 15; 19(5):E3. PMID: 16398467.
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    217. Benseler SM, deVeber G, Hawkins C, Schneider R, Tyrrell PN, Aviv RI, Armstrong D, Laxer RM, Silverman ED. Angiography-negative primary central nervous system vasculitis in children: a newly recognized inflammatory central nervous system disease. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jul; 52(7):2159-67. PMID: 15986347.
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    218. Huang A, Ho CS, Ponzielli R, Barsyte-Lovejoy D, Bouffet E, Picard D, Hawkins CE, Penn LZ. Identification of a novel c-Myc protein interactor, JPO2, with transforming activity in medulloblastoma cells. Cancer Res. 2005 Jul 01; 65(13):5607-19. PMID: 15994933.
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    219. Rafay MF, Sutcliffe TL, Shroff M, Hawkins C, Weiss S, Benseler SM, deVeber G. Primary central nervous system angiitis in a 10-year-old girl. Can J Neurol Sci. 2005 May; 32(2):243-5. PMID: 16018162.
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    220. Sakuta R, Otsubo H, Nolan MA, Weiss SK, Hawkins C, Rutka JT, Chuang NA, Chuang SH, Snead OC. Recurrent intractable seizures in children with cortical dysplasia adjacent to dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. J Child Neurol. 2005 Apr; 20(4):377-84. PMID: 15921242.
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    221. Singh SK, Hawkins C, Clarke ID, Squire JA, Bayani J, Hide T, Henkelman RM, Cusimano MD, Dirks PB. Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells. Nature. 2004 Nov 18; 432(7015):396-401. PMID: 15549107.
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    222. Ray A, Ho M, Ma J, Parkes RK, Mainprize TG, Ueda S, McLaughlin J, Bouffet E, Rutka JT, Hawkins CE. A clinicobiological model predicting survival in medulloblastoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Nov 15; 10(22):7613-20. PMID: 15569993.
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    223. Chilton-Macneill S, Ho M, Hawkins C, Gassas A, Zielenska M, Baruchel S. C-kit expression and mutational analysis in medulloblastoma. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2004 Sep-Oct; 7(5):493-8. PMID: 15547773.
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    224. Punnett AS, McCarthy LJ, Dirks PB, Hawkins C, Bouffet E. Patients with primary brain tumors as organ donors: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2004 Jul; 43(1):73-7. PMID: 15170894.
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    225. Nolan MA, Sakuta R, Chuang N, Otsubo H, Rutka JT, Snead OC, Hawkins CE, Weiss SK. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors in childhood: long-term outcome and prognostic features. Neurology. 2004 Jun 22; 62(12):2270-6. PMID: 15210893.
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    226. Capra M, Wherrett D, Weitzman S, Dirks P, Hawkins C, Bouffet E. Pituitary stalk thickening and primary central nervous system lymphoma. J Neurooncol. 2004 Mar-Apr; 67(1-2):227-31. PMID: 15072472.
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    227. Al-Gahtany M, Shroff M, Bouffet E, Dirks P, Drake J, Humphreys R, Laperriere N, Hawkins C, Rutka J, Shroft M. Primary central nervous system sarcomas in children: clinical, radiological, and pathological features. Childs Nerv Syst. 2003 Dec; 19(12):808-17. PMID: 14574612.
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    228. Singh SK, Clarke ID, Terasaki M, Bonn VE, Hawkins C, Squire J, Dirks PB. Identification of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors. Cancer Res. 2003 Sep 15; 63(18):5821-8. PMID: 14522905.
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    229. Peraud A, Mondal S, Hawkins C, Mastronardi M, Bailey K, Rutka JT. Expression of fascin, an actin-bundling protein, in astrocytomas of varying grades. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2003; 20(2):53-8. PMID: 14756441.
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    230. Hawkins C, Muller P, Bilbao JM. April 1999--44 year old man with a bleeding intracerebral tumor. Brain Pathol. 1999 Oct; 9(4):741-2. PMID: 10517512.
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