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Steven Schwartz

TitleHead, Division of Cardiac Critical Care
InstitutionThe Hospital for Sick Children
DepartmentCritical Care Medicine
Address555 University Avenue
Toronto ON M5G 1X8
Phone416-813-1500
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Dr. Schwartz received his medical degree from Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan and went on to complete internship and residency in pediatrics at St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children (Temple University) in Philadelphia, fellowship in pediatric cardiology at C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital (The University of Michigan) in Ann Arbor, Michigan and fellowship in pediatric critical care medicine at Children’s Hospital (Harvard University) in Boston, Massachusetts. During this time, he also completed a Masters of Science at the University of Michigan School Of Public Health in Biostatistics and Clinical Research Design. Dr. Schwartz was appointed to the faculty of the University of Cincinnati School Of Medicine and Cincinnati Children’s Hospital in 1996 in the Divisions of Cardiology and Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and served as Co-Director of Cardiac Intensive Care for almost 10 years.

    He joined the medical staff at The Hospital for Sick Children in January 2006 as Head of the Division of Cardiac Critical Care Medicine. Dr. Schwartz has authored or co-authored numerous papers and book chapters on clinical care and underlying mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction in critically ill infants and children with congenital heart disease and is a frequent speaker at national and international meetings. His current research involves the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on metabolism and cardiac function and using continuously captured physiologic data to predict long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes after pediatric heart surgery. Dr. Schwartz is one of the SickKids Primary Investigators for the NIH sponsored Pediatric Heart Network. This network conducts major multicenter research and trials focused on pediatric heart disease. Dr. Schwartz’s academic serves as a member of the Executive Committee of the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4) and the Board of Directors of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society (PCICS).

    Dr. Schwartz holds certification by the American Board of Pediatrics in both Critical Care Medicine and Cardiology.


    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Floh AA, McCrindle BW, Manlhiot C, Nakada M, La Rotta G, Van Arsdell G, Schwartz SM. Feeding May Modulate the Relationship Between Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Poor Outcome Following Cardiopulmonary Bypass for Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2019 Mar 18. PMID: 30887547.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Meert KL, Guerguerian AM, Barbaro R, Slomine BS, Christensen JR, Berger J, Topjian A, Bembea M, Tabbutt S, Fink EL, Schwartz SM, Nadkarni VM, Telford R, Dean JM, Moler FW. Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: One-Year Survival and Neurobehavioral Outcome Among Infants and Children With In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. Crit Care Med. 2019 03; 47(3):393-402. PMID: 30422861.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Bacon MK, Gray SB, Schwartz SM, Cooper DS. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) Support in Special Patient Populations-The Bidirectional Glenn and Fontan Circulations. Front Pediatr. 2018; 6:299. PMID: 30386759.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Min S, Papaz T, Lafreniere-Roula M, Nalli N, Grasemann H, Schwartz SM, Kamath BM, Ng V, Parekh RS, Manlhiot C, Mital S. A randomized clinical trial of age and genotype-guided tacrolimus dosing after pediatric solid organ transplantation. Pediatr Transplant. 2018 11; 22(7):e13285. PMID: 30178515.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Sniderman J, Schwartz SM. Crystalloids Versus Colloids After Pediatric Heart Surgery: Is One Better Than the Other? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018 Sep; 19(9):901-902. PMID: 30180127.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Cohen MS, Dagincourt N, Zak V, Baffa JM, Bartz P, Dragulescu A, Dudlani G, Henderson H, Krawczeski CD, Lai WW, Levine JC, Lewis AB, McCandless RT, Ohye RG, Owens ST, Schwartz SM, Slesnick TC, Taylor CL, Frommelt PC. The Impact of the Left Ventricle on Right Ventricular Function and Clinical Outcomes in Infants with Single-Right Ventricle Anomalies up to 14 Months of Age. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2018 Oct; 31(10):1151-1157. PMID: 29980396.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Schwartz SM. Should magnesium be routine for arrhythmia prevention? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2018 Aug; 156(2):762. PMID: 29884500.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Thakur V, Dutil N, Schwartz SM, Jaeggi E. Impact of prenatal diagnosis on the management and early outcome of critical duct-dependent cardiac lesions. Cardiol Young. 2018 Apr; 28(4):548-553. PMID: 29409551.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Brown G, Schwartz SM. Is My Patient Too Blue? Who Can Benefit From Early Intervention After a Bidirectional Cavopulmonary Anastomosis? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018 01; 19(1):81-82. PMID: 29303895.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Chen CK, Manlhiot C, Mital S, Schwartz SM, Van Arsdell GS, Caldarone C, McCrindle BW, Dipchand AI. Prelisting predictions of early postoperative survival in infant heart transplantation using classification and regression tree analysis. Pediatr Transplant. 2018 03; 22(2). PMID: 29271030.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Gaies M, Werho DK, Zhang W, Donohue JE, Tabbutt S, Ghanayem NS, Scheurer MA, Costello JM, Gaynor JW, Pasquali SK, Dimick JB, Banerjee M, Schwartz SM. Duration of Postoperative Mechanical Ventilation as a Quality Metric for Pediatric Cardiac Surgical Programs. Ann Thorac Surg. 2018 Feb; 105(2):615-621. PMID: 28987397.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Romans RA, Schwartz SM, Costello JM, Chanani NK, Prodhan P, Gazit AZ, Smith AH, Cooper DS, Alten J, Mistry KP, Zhang W, Donohue JE, Gaies M. Epidemiology of Noninvasive Ventilation in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017 Oct; 18(10):949-957. PMID: 28742724.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Hickey EJ, Halvorsen F, Laussen PC, Hirst G, Schwartz S, Van Arsdell GS. Chasing the 6-sigma: Drawing lessons from the cockpit culture. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2018 Feb; 155(2):690-696.e1. PMID: 29415390.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Schwartz SM. What predicts risk and what defines outcomes in congenital heart disease? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017 Aug; 154(2):618-619. PMID: 28274563.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Hickey E, Pham-Hung E, Nosikova Y, Halvorsen F, Gritti M, Schwartz S, Caldarone CA, Van Arsdell G. NASA Model of "Threat and Error" in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: Patterns of Error Chains. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017 Apr; 103(4):1300-1307. PMID: 27955899.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Friedberg MK, Schwartz SM, Zhang H, Chiu-Man C, Manlhiot C, Ilina MV, Arsdell GV, Kirsh JA, McCrindle BW, Stephenson EA. Hemodynamic effects of sustained postoperative cardiac resynchronization therapy in infants after repair of congenital heart disease: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Heart Rhythm. 2017 02; 14(2):240-247. PMID: 27687644.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Schwartz SM. Are Ketones a Window on the Risk Attributable to Hyperglycemia After Pediatric Heart Surgery? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 09; 17(9):889-90. PMID: 27585041.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Floh AA, Slicker J, Schwartz SM. Nutrition and Mesenteric Issues in Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 08; 17(8 Suppl 1):S243-9. PMID: 27490606.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Soto-Rivera CL, Schwartz SM, Sawyer JE, Macrae DJ, Agus MS. Endocrinologic Diseases in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 08; 17(8 Suppl 1):S296-301. PMID: 27490613.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Schwartz SM. Can an automated early warning system derived from continuous physiologic monitoring prevent disaster? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016 Jul; 152(1):3-4. PMID: 27157915.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Pasquali SK, Jacobs JP, Farber GK, Bertoch D, Blume ED, Burns KM, Campbell R, Chang AC, Chung WK, Riehle-Colarusso T, Curtis LH, Forrest CB, Gaynor WJ, Gaies MG, Go AS, Henchey P, Martin GR, Pearson G, Pemberton VL, Schwartz SM, Vincent R, Kaltman JR. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group: An Integrated Network for Congenital Heart Disease Research. Circulation. 2016 Apr 05; 133(14):1410-8. PMID: 27045129.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Mertens LL, Schwartz SM. Sedation Practices in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs After Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Apr; 17(4):369-70. PMID: 27043903.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Wertaschnigg D, Manlhiot C, Jaeggi M, Seed M, Dragulescu A, Schwartz SM, van Arsdell G, Jaeggi ET. Contemporary Outcomes and Factors Associated With Mortality After a Fetal or Neonatal Diagnosis of Ebstein Anomaly and Tricuspid Valve Disease. Can J Cardiol. 2016 12; 32(12):1500-1506. PMID: 27476984.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Tume SC, Schwartz SM, Bronicki RA. Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society 2014 Consensus Statement: Pharmacotherapies in Cardiac Critical Care Treatment of Acute Heart Failure. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Mar; 17(3 Suppl 1):S16-9. PMID: 26945325.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Mouzaki M, Schwartz SM, Mtaweh H, La Rotta G, Mah K, Herridge J, Van Arsdell G, Parshuram CS, Floh AA. Can Vco2-Based Estimates of Resting Energy Expenditure Replace the Need for Indirect Calorimetry in Critically Ill Children? JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2017 05; 41(4):619-624. PMID: 26950946.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Schwartz SM, Floh AA, Laussen PC. Pharmacological Manipulation of Peripheral Vascular Resistance in Single Ventricle Patients (Stages I, II, and III of Palliation). Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2016; 14(1):58-62. PMID: 26463984.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Manlhiot C, Brandão LR, Schwartz SM, Sivarajan VB, Williams S, Collins TH, McCrindle BW. Management and Outcomes of Patients with Occlusive Thrombosis after Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. J Pediatr. 2016 Feb; 169:146-53. PMID: 26589345.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Gaies M, Tabbutt S, Schwartz SM, Bird GL, Alten JA, Shekerdemian LS, Klugman D, Thiagarajan RR, Gaynor JW, Jacobs JP, Nicolson SC, Donohue JE, Yu S, Pasquali SK, Cooper DS. Clinical Epidemiology of Extubation Failure in the Pediatric Cardiac ICU: A Report From the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov; 16(9):837-45. PMID: 26218260.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Jean-St-Michel E, Chetan D, Schwartz SM, Van Arsdell GS, Floh AA, Honjo O, Conway J. Outcomes in Patients with Persistent Ventricular Dysfunction After Stage I Palliation for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. Pediatr Cardiol. 2016 Feb; 37(2):239-47. PMID: 26396116.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Floh AA, Manlhiot C, Redington AN, McCrindle BW, Clarizia NA, Caldarone CA, Schwartz SM. Insulin resistance and inflammation are a cause of hyperglycemia after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015 Sep; 150(3):498-504.e1. PMID: 26190660.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Floh AA, Nakada M, La Rotta G, Mah K, Herridge JE, Van Arsdell G, Schwartz SM. Systemic inflammation increases energy expenditure following pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015 May; 16(4):343-51. PMID: 25651049.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Schwartz S, Floh AA. Is glucose metabolism important for patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015 Mar; 16(3):296-7. PMID: 25738930.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Schwartz S, Floh AA. Is this heart going to work? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2014 Nov; 15(9):909-10. PMID: 25370062.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Hickey EJ, Nosikova Y, Pham-Hung E, Gritti M, Schwartz S, Caldarone CA, Redington A, Van Arsdell GS. National Aeronautics and Space Administration "threat and error" model applied to pediatric cardiac surgery: error cycles precede ~85% of patient deaths. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015 Feb; 149(2):496-505; discussion 505-7. PMID: 25726875.
      View in: PubMed
    35. McCrindle BW, Clarizia NA, Khaikin S, Holtby HM, Manlhiot C, Schwartz SM, Caldarone CA, Coles JG, Van Arsdell GS, Scherer SW, Redington AN. Remote ischemic preconditioning in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: a single-center double-blinded randomized trial. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Jul 28; 3(4). PMID: 25074698.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Zakova M, Pong S, Trope A, Atenafu EG, Papaioannou V, Bitnun SA, Richardson S, Schwartz S, Cox P, Parshuram C, Seto W. Dose derivation of once-daily dosing guidelines for gentamicin in critically ill pediatric patients. Ther Drug Monit. 2014 Jun; 36(3):288-94. PMID: 24695354.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Schwartz SM. Tattered and torn: the life of a RBC on the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit. Crit Care Med. 2014 May; 42(5):1314-5. PMID: 24736354.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Schwartz SM. Life in the fast lane: nighttime extubation in the pediatric cardiac critical care unit*. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2014 Mar; 15(3):276-7. PMID: 24608501.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Schwartz SM, Lu M, Ohye RG, Hill KD, Atz AM, Naim MY, Williams IA, Goldberg CS, Lewis A, Pigula F, Manning P, Pizarro C, Chai P, McCandless R, Dunbar-Masterson C, Kaltman JR, Kanter K, Sleeper LA, Schonbeck JV, Ghanayem N. Risk factors for prolonged length of stay after the stage 2 procedure in the single-ventricle reconstruction trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014 Jun; 147(6):1791-8, 1798.e1-4. PMID: 24075564.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Marwali EM, Boom CE, Sakidjan I, Santoso A, Fakhri D, Kartini A, Kekalih A, Schwartz SM, Haas NA. Oral triiodothyronine normalizes triiodothyronine levels after surgery for pediatric congenital heart disease*. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013 Sep; 14(7):701-8. PMID: 23842591.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Blinova E, Lau E, Bitnun A, Cox P, Schwartz S, Atenafu E, Yau Y, Streitenberger L, Parshuram CS, Marshall J, Seto W. Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial utilization in the cardiac and pediatric critical care unit. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013 Jul; 14(6):e280-8. PMID: 23823209.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Schwartz SM, Schmidt A. Medical and nursing care of the child on mechanical circulatory support. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013 Jun; 14(5 Suppl 1):S43-50. PMID: 23735985.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Jacques F, Anand V, Hickey EJ, Kotani Y, Yadava M, Alghamdi A, Caldarone CA, Redington AN, Schwartz S, Van Arsdell GS. Medical errors: the performance gap in hypoplastic left heart syndrome and physiologic equivalents? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013 Jun; 145(6):1465-73; discussion 1473-5. PMID: 23434297.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Manlhiot C, Brandão LR, Kwok J, Kegel S, Menjak IB, Carew CL, Chan AK, Schwartz SM, Sivarajan VB, Caldarone CA, Van Arsdell GS, McCrindle BW. Thrombotic complications and thromboprophylaxis across all three stages of single ventricle heart palliation. J Pediatr. 2012 Sep; 161(3):513-519.e3. PMID: 22513267.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Manlhiot C, McCrindle BW, Menjak IB, Yoon H, Holtby HM, Brandão LR, Chan AK, Schwartz SM, Sivarajan VB, Crawford-Lean L, Foreman C, Caldarone CA, Van Arsdell GS, Gruenwald CE. Longer blood storage is associated with suboptimal outcomes in high-risk pediatric cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012 May; 93(5):1563-9. PMID: 22137242.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Manlhiot C, Menjak IB, Brandão LR, Gruenwald CE, Schwartz SM, Sivarajan VB, Yoon H, Maratta R, Carew CL, McMullen JA, Clarizia NA, Holtby HM, Williams S, Caldarone CA, Van Arsdell GS, Chan AK, McCrindle BW. Risk, clinical features, and outcomes of thrombosis associated with pediatric cardiac surgery. Circulation. 2011 Oct 04; 124(14):1511-9. PMID: 21911785.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Schwartz SM, Anand KJ, Portman MA, Crow S, Nelson DP, Zimmerman JJ. Endocrinopathies in the cardiac ICU. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2011 Jul 01; 2(3):400-10. PMID: 23803992.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Clarizia NA, Manlhiot C, Schwartz SM, Sivarajan VB, Maratta R, Holtby HM, Gruenwald CE, Caldarone CA, Van Arsdell GS, McCrindle BW. Improved outcomes associated with intraoperative steroid use in high-risk pediatric cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011 Apr; 91(4):1222-7. PMID: 21440149.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Moga MA, Manlhiot C, Marwali EM, McCrindle BW, Van Arsdell GS, Schwartz SM. Hyperglycemia after pediatric cardiac surgery: impact of age and residual lesions. Crit Care Med. 2011 Feb; 39(2):266-72. PMID: 21057314.
      View in: PubMed
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